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1. Many of the shared derived features of primates are related to ______________.

a. running in terrestrial habitats

b. eating eucalyptus leaves

c. movement in arboreal habitats

d. swimming in aquatic habitats

2. Primates differ from other mammals in that primates are characterized by ____________. (mark all that apply)

a. mammary glands

b. eyes encircled by a bony ring

c. nails on the big toe

d. a relatively larger brain as compared to body size

3. Modern biological taxonomies attempt to map evolutionary relationships.

a. true

b. false

4. The primate hand is characterized by _________. (check all that apply)

a. pentadactylism

b. nails

c. dermal ridges

d. flippers

e. opposable thumbs (with some exceptions)

5. Play behavior is important for ______________. (mark all that apply)

a. endothermic regulation

b. learning about the physical world

c. development of social skills and social bonds

d. development and refinement of physical skills

6. In chimpanzee groups ______________. (mark all that apply)

a. closely related males form coalitions

b. males migrate from their natal group to another when they reach adolescence.

c. females migrate from their natal group to another when they reach adolescence.

d. males groom each other about twice as long as males and females groom each other

7. Examples of protoculture observed among wild chimps include:

a. stripping sticks of leaves and then using the sticks to fish for termites and other insects.

b. rolling in and consuming medicinal plants.

c. licking rocks by the sea.

d. cracking nuts with rocks.

e. teaching each other sign language.

8. Tool manufacturing among wild chimpanzees is an example of innate behavior.

a. true

b. false

9. Although gorillas, chimps, and bonobos lack the vocal apparatus to speak human languages, they have been taught to communicate using American Sign Language.

a. true

b. false

10. In primate groups with social hierarchies, researchers have found that females and males are ranked separately.

a. true

b. false

11. Bonobos’ social organization differs from chimps in that females are often leaders of groups.

a.true

b. false

12. Alpha males and females in primate groups have dominant alleles.

a. true

b. false

13. In chimpanzee societies, the “alpha” male is born into that position and remains there his entire life by bullying and abusing other males and females in the group.

a. true

b. false

14. Primatologists have shown that the sexual body size dimorphism observed in most Hominoids correlates with social and mating systems. This has led to hypotheses linking sexual body size dimorphism to a type of sexual selection known as _______________.

a. male dominance

b. mating arranged by kin

c. male-male (or intermale) competition for mates

d. female choice of mates

15. Anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) exhibit the least amount of body size sexual dimorphism within the family Hominidae (great apes and humans).

a. true

b. false

16. Chimps and bonobos are significantly stronger than humans.

a. true

b. false

17. If the oldest fossils of bipedal apes are reliably dated to around seven million years old, then the split from a common ancestor between the Pan and Hominin lineages must be at least seven million years ago.

a. true

b. false

18. Humans have encroached on the habitats of the living apes, all of which are endangered, threatened with extinction.

a. true

b. false

19. Natural selection leads to survival of the strongest.

a. true

b. false

20. Archaeological evidence has revealed that humans lived in relatively small, egalitarian foraging ___________ societies up until about 13,000 years ago.

a. tribal

b. band

c. pastoral

d. state

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