Biology homework help

Lab Report Guidelines
Communication is necessary to disseminate information. In this regard, beyond talking with
each other, scientists report on their work by writing articles on their findings and publish
them in journals that other scientists read. The main idea a scientific article is to convey
scientific findings
that usually emerge from a hypothesis driven experiment(s).
The structure or format of these scientific articles is nearly universal irrespective of the length of the article.
The format
is a convention that guides the author as well as the reader. At its most basic, the
format guides one through the process telling a story.
The format for the
Lab Report on the activity of enzymes will resemble that of a scientific
journal article with some modifications
The Lab Report will have a
Title, an
, a Methods and Materials
a Results
a Discussion/Conclusion
and an
sectioN.Each section is
typed in bold and start on a new page.
An Abstract summarizing the articleis not required although they are
in scientific
Acknowledgments (for help received and collaborations)
are not required, but
included. Each section is unique, different from
each other
, but
rely on each other to
the story
reason for the article. Include enough
background material to
gain the readers interest, much like all good story telling does
. For our purposes, limit the discussion of enzymes to the material presented in
class lectures and
in the textbook. There is no need to look for additional information on enzymes unless you are so driven, but be warned, the amount of information is overwhelming. At the end of the Introduction, list the
hypotheses for all parts or experiments in
the study. The Methods and Materials
describes all the steps taken to perform the experiments. The
purpose of this section is to allow someone else to replicate your work. Therefore, all
chemicals or reagents, their concentration, how they were mixed together and the
instrumentation used must be noted.
There is no need to explain how an instrument works
unless it is a newly developed one. For instance, one c
an assume that the reader knows how
to operate a spectrophotometer.
This section is the near equivalent of a cook book to a chef.
If there are five experiments, then provide instructions for replicating all five experiments.
The Results section
contains the study data only
.Present the raw data and any transformation of the raw data.
Figures and tables
are ideal for presenting the data because
pictures convey information more easily than words.
Label all figures, tables and images with a title, a very brief description of the data
, and an explanation of
specific components of the image that important
for interpreting the data.
Introduce each figure or table in the text. Presenting a figure or table without
any text is a serious mistake
–you are asking the reader to read your mind and intentions. Avoid the temptation
explaining the data in this section
–this comes later in the Discussion/Conclusion section.
However, you may explain that one or two points in the data were omitted in a figure or table due to some mishap during the data
collection-this is perfectly acceptable. Remember, the focus of this section is the data, and only the data. The Discussion/Conclusion
is where you interpret your findings and results.First, restate the goals of the study. Second, interpret that data by considering whether the data from the experiments support your hypotheses stated in the Introduction
synthesize all the data or observations in the
study. Do the results fit what you know about enzymes and what you expected?
The data
make sense with your knowledge and expectations. Discuss whether it does or does not.
Fourth,discuss how future work may address any weaknesses
in the experiments performed,and suggest possible studies that will build on the knowledge
gained from these studies.
Lastly, make a final conclusion about the observations in your lab and how they fit the topic.
A Reference section is included if you wish to cite any literature such as your textbook, the lab or any other source material.It is not required for this assignment.
An Acknowledgement
section is included if you wish to
thank anyone who provided you some unique reagents,or help in the writing of the text.It is not required for this assignment.
There are questions in the lab manual after each experiment
You must address these
within the appropriate section of the
Lab Report.
Figure out where the answer to each question fits in
the Lab Report format discussed above before you start writing
The Lab Report should
be a minimum of 8
typed pages of text
figures, tables, illustrations, or other images), double spaced,
and 10pt.–12 pt.font. The Introduction (min. of text),
Methods and Materials
(min. 4page of text), Results (min. 1.5page of text)
and Discussion/Conclusion
(min. 1 page of text)
For this particular assignment, place a
ll figures, tables, illustrations, and images
at the end of the paper and call
this section the
The length of the Appendix does not count towards the length of the Lab Report
Warning: Do not plagiarize! This is a serious offense. Do not copy-and-paste from any source including a classmate’s Lab Report. The
penalty is a score of zero points (0 points).



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