cell biology 4

please answer the following questions strictly from the article:

2. Define IgM and why do the authors examine IgM-positive (IgM+) and IgM-negative (IgM-) cells in Figure 1? (2 marks)
3. Briefly explain how flow cytometry works and what cellular characteristics/properties may be measured by it (besides phagocytosis). (2 marks)
4. Briefly explain the results depicted in Figure 1A. (3 marks)
5. Are there a greater proportion of phagocytic B cells in trout peripheral blood leukocytes or head kidney leukocytes? Briefly explain the results that support your answer. (3 marks)
6. Briefly explain the technique employed in Figure 2. (2 marks)
7. To the right of each gene listed below, write IgM+ phagocytic, IgM– phagocytic, IgM+ non–phagocytic cells,and/or IgM– non–phagocytic cells. Each gene corresponds to one or more peripheral blood leukocyte cell
population(s). (3 marks)
IgTm+S:
IgDmem:
b-actin:
CSF-1R: CD8a:
TCRb:
8. Briefly explain why the authors examine the expression of CSF1-R in Figure 2. (2 marks)
9. In your own words and in one sentence, explain opsonization. What are the two opsonins that the authors use in Figure 6? What is the result of opsonization, as seen in this figure? (3 marks)
10. What organelle is being shown in Figure 7g? Briefly explain what this organelle is and what the significance of this result is to the authors’ findings. (2 marks)
11. List the cell types known to be capable of phagocytosis in higher vertebrates. (1 mark)
12. In your own words, briefly explain the evolutionary pathway that the authors propose may have led to the evolution of phagocytic B cells. (2 marks)
13. Did mammalian B cells lose their “innate” phagocytic capacities, as the authors suggest? Confirm and support your answer: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/. (3 marks)

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