cell structure and function

Question 3.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), also called immotile ciliary syndrome or Kartagener
syndrome, is a rare, ciliopathic, autosomal recessive genetic disorder that causes defects in the action
of cilia lining the respiratory tract (lower and upper, sinuses, Eustachian tube, middle ear), fallopian
tube, and flagella of sperm cells. In PCD the cilia do still have some very low level movement, but in
addition to slower cilia movements these movements are unsynchronized. Respiratory epithelial
motile cilia, which resemble microscopic “hairs” (although structurally and biologically unrelated to
hair), are complex organelles that beat synchronously in the respiratory tract, moving mucus toward
the throat. Normally, cilia beat 7 to 22 times per second, and any impairment in this movement or the
synchrony of movement between cells can result in poor mucociliary clearance, with subsequent
upper and lower respiratory infection.
A. Fully describe all the structural parts of a cilium. (see chapter 16) B.
C.
How does a cilia work? What are all the “parts” needed to make cilia move properly? How do
these “parts” interact to create a moving cilium (also What cell/molecular factors are needed
for cilia on one cell to move in synchrony with the cilia on an adjacent cell or on the same
cell) (see chapter 16)
Explain how cilia are formed at the cellular level, in the respiratory tract of a human. In your
explanation try to be as thorough as possible
—In other words — describe the entire process of cilia biogenesis –from what genes are need
to be initially expressed; what proteins are made from the mRNAs from those expressed
genes; where are these proteins made; that are needed to make the cilia (in the cytosol-on free
ribosomes? or on ER ribosomes). This includes not only the proteins that are physically a part
of the cilia, but also any motor proteins that are cargo transporters and construction proteins
(the machines that build the cilia) For Example how are the proteins that are in the cilia itself
transported from the ribosomes where they are 1st made to the actual plasma membrane site
where the cilia will be newly formed. Are motor proteins needed for this transport event; are
any accessory proteins needed to make this transport possible. Also after all the proteins have
been made—How does the cilia get built. What puts all the pieces of the cilia together—how
does it get elongated what proteins are needed to build it; to lengthen it; to stabilize it ; to
attach its parts to one another. How do these protein factors and other molecular factors
combine…. to go from an initial state of “no cilia present” to the creation of a brand new
cilia.
D. 1)
2)
Based on your description above, of the factors needed for cilia biogenesis (in part C) and
cilia functionality in part B:
Describe a hypothetical genetic mutation that might cause Primary ciliary dyskinesia.
(Give the name of the gene that is being mutated) For this question—Your mutation
should specifically effect the shape of a protein that is needed for cilia biogenesis that
when altered could then directly or indirectly impair the proper formation of cilia or
impair the cilia motility process itself ; as seen in clinical cases of Primary ciliary
dyskinesia. Be sure to explain how and why the mutant protein’s altered structure is
leading to the malfunction in cilia movement.
Describe a hypothetical genetic mutation that might cause Primary ciliary dyskinesia.
(Give the specific name of the gene that is being mutated) For this question—Your
mutation should specifically effect the shape of a protein that is involved in
synchronizing the movement between cilia on adjacent cells……as seen in some clinical
cases of Primary ciliary dyskinesia. Be sure to explain how and why the mutant
protein’s altered structure is leading to the malfunction in cilia synchronization.

Do you need a similar assignment done for you from scratch? We have qualified writers to help you. We assure you an A+ quality paper that is free from plagiarism. Order now for an Amazing Discount! Use Discount Code “Newclient” for a 15% Discount!NB: We do not resell papers. Upon ordering, we do an original paper exclusively for you.

The post cell structure and function appeared first on Custom Nursing Help.

"Looking for a Similar Assignment? Order now and Get a Discount!

Feeling Lucky?

Enter your email address to spin the wheel for a chance to win exciting offers.

Scroll to Top