Salinity affects irrigated areas in arid and semi-arid regions in the world, and about 20 to 50 percent of the land on earth is affected by salinity (Pitman and Lauchli, 2002). Existence and accumulation of soluble salts in the soil layers limit the growth of crops essential for our food. Salt stress dramatically affects plant growth, plant development, as well as crop yield. Arabidopsis thaliana is the plant model that provides comprehensive knowledge of plant development, genetics and physiology and response to abiotic stressed such as salinity. Due to the redundancy of gene duplication and function, knockout (KO) mutagenesis does not always provide information on gene function. ‘Gain-of-function’ mutants are an alternative genetic tool to identify gene functions for redundant genes, and those with small effect or respond to an environmental condition. Transposon-mediated ‘activation tagging’ is an efficient genetic tool that generates ‘gain-of-function’ mutants for a large number of genes. In the method used here, the transposable element Enhancer-Inhibitor (En-l/dSpm) of maize was modified to develop an activation tag (AT) mutant library in Arabidopsis. The mobile I-AT transposon contains a transcriptional enhancer, from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, located close to the right border of the transposon. This I-AT is randomly inserted into plant genome by transposition from the T-DNA, and gives rise to the mutants due to overexpression of adjacent genes. Consequently, dominant phenotypes are displayed in the I-AT plants due to overexpression of the gene(s) adjacent to the 35S enhancer. In this study, the I-AT library was used to screen for salt tolerance, identified by an enhanced growth or biomass of the mutant compared to wild-type grown in salt condition. A number of tagged salt tolerance candidate genes were identified flanking the write a literature review based on – Abiotic Stress in Plant – Salinity – Improving salt tolerance in plant – 1- breeding for salt stress – 2- salt stress screening methods – 3- Genetic strategies of identifying salt tolerance genes – 3,1 / knockout (T.DNA – Transposon). – 3,2 / Activation tag ( transposon – using maize En-I maize transposon system in Arabidopsis) – 3,3 Advantage & dis advantage of knockout and activation tags (Redundancy main problem) – Example of genes have been identified in salinity in some crops and mainly in Arabidopsis and Rice – 1- transcription factors – 2- functional genes. Explain very well the salinity pathway and review all the known genes that has been identified for the salinity, identified so far and explain all the studies that have been done using activation tag approach.
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