Develop an alternate conclusion for the 4 studies presented below that would appear more plausible to an astute student of statistical data analysis and interpretation.

a.   Based upon a study of the heights of men playing basketball, a researcher concludes that the exercise from playing basketball causes people to grow taller.

b.   Based upon a study showing college graduates tend to live longer than those who do not graduate from college, a researcher concludes that studying causes people to live longer.

c.   A study shows that in Peach County, GA more speeding tickets were issued to minorities. Conclusion: Minorities speed more than non-minorities in Peach County, GA.

d.   In a study of cold symptoms, all of the subjects with a cold were found to be improved two weeks after taking ginger pills. Conclusion: Ginger pills cure colds.