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In some states, early release measures have resulted in a backlash due to an outbreak of crime committed by prisoners released early. (For example, prisoners released due to COVID 19 concerns.)

Early release measures have resulted in a backlash due to an outbreak of crime committed by prisoners released early

The Prisons in United States
In some states, early release measures have resulted in a backlash due to an outbreak of crime committed by prisoners released early. (For example, prisoners released due to COVID 19 concerns.)

– Do you agree with these states’ decision to release inmates early, including those convicted of violent crimes?

– What is the alternative?

– Provide at least one example of an incident involving an inmate released early.

Using key terms from the textbook chapter, answer the following question(s):

Key Terms
Penitentiary: The earliest form of large-scale incarceration. It punished criminals by isolating them so that they could reflect on their misdeeds, repent, and reform.

Pennsylvania system (also separate system): The first historical phase of prison discipline, involving solitary confinement in silence instead of corporal punishment; conceived by the American Quakers in 1790 and implemented at the Walnut Street Jail.
Auburn system: The second historical phase of prison discipline, implemented at New York’s Auburn prison in 1815. It followed the Pennsylvania system and allowed inmates to work silently together during the day, but they were isolated at night. Eventually sleeping cells became congregate and restrictions against talking were removed.

Federal Prison Industries (FPI): A federal, paid inmate work program and self-supporting corporation.
UNICOR: The trade name of Federal Prison Industries. UNICOR provides such products as U.S. military uniforms, electronic cable assemblies, and modular furniture.

Operational capacity: The number of inmates that a facility’s staff, existing programs, and services can accommodate.
Design capacity: The number of inmates that planners or architects intend for the facility.

Justice reinvestment: The practice of reducing spending on prisons and investing a portion of the savings into infrastructure and civic institutions located in high-risk neighborhoods.

Roadmap to reentry: Principles of correctional reform to reduce recidivism by supporting and strengthening reentry programs and resources at the Federal Bureau of Prisons.

Maximum- or close/high-security prison: A prison designed, organized, and staffed to confine the most dangerous offenders for long periods. It has a highly secure perimeter, barred cells, and a high staff-to-inmate ratio. It imposes strict controls on the movement of inmates and visitors, and it offers few programs, amenities, or privileges.

Medium-security prison: A prison that confines offenders considered less dangerous than those in maximum security, for both short and long periods. It places fewer controls on inmates’ and visitors’ freedom of movement than does a maximum-security facility. It, too, has barred cells and a fortified perimeter. The staff-to-inmate ratio is generally lower than that in a maximum-security facility. Also, the level of amenities and privileges is slightly higher.

Minimum-security prison: A prison that confines the least dangerous offenders for both short and long periods. It allows as much freedom of movement and as many privileges and amenities as are consistent with the goals of the facility. It may have dormitory housing and the staff-to-inmate ratio is relatively low.

Open institution: A minimum-security facility that has no fences or walls surrounding it.

Supermax housing: A freestanding facility, or a distinct unit within a facility, that provides for management and secure control of inmates who have been officially designated as exhibiting violent or serious and disruptive behavior while incarcerated.
Special master: A person appointed by the court to act as its representative to oversee remedy of a violation and provide regular progress reports.

Contraband: Any item that represents a serious threat to the safety and security of the institution.
Biometrics: The automated identification or verification of human identity through measurable physiological and behavioral traits.

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