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Write a paper of five pages double-spaced, one-inch margins, and 12-point font in response to the following question. Hamilton argues, in Federalist 84, that “bills of rights . . . are not only unnecessary in the proposed Constitution, but would even be dangerous.” A. What arguments does Hamilton make to substantiate this claim? B. Do you find these arguments persuasive? Specifically address the following 2 queries in your response: A. How much is the idea of liberty separable from the idea of rights, or, how much so as to cast doubt upon the utility of bills of rights? B. Is the provision of constitutionally-enumerated rights, in your view, a necessary component of republican government? NB. Please read about Hamilton arguments clearly including the following roughly for a references of the essay. ########++++++++++++####+#+#+++#+##############++ A. The Theory and Practice of a Democratic Republic: Montesquieu, the American Revolution and the New Constitution Theoretical focuses of lectures and discussions: (1) how constitutions undergird and inhibit republican government, (2) how do republics extend the franchise? (3) the return to strong(er) executive government (“the revolt against 1776”), (4) role of the petition as a representative mechanism for lower estates and other populations without franchise power, (5) civic institutions for keeping citizens well informed. The revolt against royal authority and the American Revolution. The repudiation of 1776, the forging of the American Constitution. Wood, Creation of the American Republic, Parts Four and Five. The Massachusetts Constitution of 1780. [E] The Great Law of Peace and the Iroquois Constitution [E] The Federalist Papers, Nos 1-10 [Hamilton, Madison and Jay]; 15, 23, 34-35 [Hamilton]; 39, 45, 47-51 [Madison], 67-73, 78-80, 84-85 [Hamilton]. Jefferson letter to Madison on adding rights to the Constitution, 1789; http://press- pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/print_documents/v1ch14s49.html George Washington, Letter to the Hebrew Congregation at Newport, 1790; http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/letter-to-the-hebrew- congregation-at-newport/ The Hamiltonian vision [liberty through strong government, commercial republic, strong executive] versus the Jeffersonian vision [weaker executive, agrarian republic, decentralized government]. Battles over monetary policy. Lecture 16 – Hamiltonian v. Madisonian Political Economy: (Ab)using a Public Debt — Hamilton, Writings, 531-574 (Report on the Public Credit) — Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, Queries 13-14, 17-19; use print version or online version at: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/JEFFERSON/toc.html — Jefferson, 1799 letter to Elbridge Gerry; http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/letter-to-elbridge-gerry-2/ Lecture 17 – Hamiltonian v. Madisonian Political Economy: The National Bank Question — Hamilton, Writings, 575-612 (Report on a National Bank) — Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, Queries 13-14, 17-19; — Letter to Madison, 1791; http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/opinion-on-the- constitutionality-of-a-national-bank/ Read or review Federalist Nos. 11-13, 28-30, 35-6, 84-85. Optional/Other Readings on Republican Government in the Early United States, Basis for Lecture: Wright, One Nation Under Debt, Chapter 3, Chapter 4, “The Constitution and the National Debt,” and Chapter 5, “Alexander Hamilton’s Grand Plan,” esp. pp. 147- 160. Joanne Freeman, Affairs of Honor (Yale). Thomas Pangle, The Spirit of Modern Republicanism (Chicago). Very useful critique of Wood, Pocock, and Skinner. Emphasis on Locke’s contributions. Sandel, Democracy’s Discontent, Chapter 5, “Economics and Virtue in the Early Republic” Eric Foner, Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War (Oxford), chapter on free soil ideology (40 pages). Robert Dahl, The Anti-Democratic Character of the U.S. Constitution.

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