Answer each question. Be sure to address any and all subtopics in each question. Use peer-reviewed journal articles, books, etc. to substantiate your positions. Be sure to cite your sources in-text and on a separate reference sheet (for each answer). The length of your answers will vary but each question should be addressed in 5 pages (10 pages overall), double-spaced. 1. A perennial concern in the American political system is the potential federal encroachment on state authority. Recent examples of which might be the “Affordable Care Act” or the “No Child Left Behind Act.” What are mechanisms by which states can respond to any such shift in the federal-state balance? How well do they work in maintaining “proper balance.” Use these reference materials for question 1 Stephens and Wikstrom (2007), Chapter 7, “The Resurgent States,” in American Intergovernmental Relations: A Fragmented Polity, pgs. 159-187. Stephens and Wikstrom (2007), Chapter 8, “State-Local Relations,” in American Intergovernmental Relations: A Fragmented Policy, pgs. 188-216. Meek and Thurmaier (2012), Chapters 2 and 2.1, “State-City and State-County Fiscal Relations,” and practitioner response in Networked Governance: The Future of Intergovernmental Management, pgs. 39-69. O’Toole and Christensen (2013), Chapter 28, “Policy Innovation or Vertical Integration?A View of Immigration Federalism from the States,” in American Intergovernmental Relations: Foundations, Perspectives, and Issues, pgs. 350-366. Stephens and Wikstrom (2007), Chapter 9, “Local Governments in the American Intergovernmental System,” in American Intergovernmental Relations: A Fragmented Polity, pgs. 217-245. O’Toole and Christensen(2013), Chapter 18, “Financing Local Government in a Changing World,” in American Intergovernmental Relations: Foundations, Perspectives, and Issues, pgs. 208-218. O’Toole and Christensen (2013), Chapter 19, “Tense Commandments: Federal Prescriptions and City Problems,” in American Intergovernmental Relations: Foundations, Perspectives, and Issues, pgs. 219-229. Meek and Thurmaier (2012), Chapters 4 and 4.1, “Reframing the Political and Legal Relationship between Local Governments and Regional Institutions,” and the practitioner response in Networked Governance: The Future of Intergovernmental Management, pgs. 97-126. Meek and Thurmaier (2012), Chapters 11 and 11.1, “The Evolution of Sustainable Cities as a Metropolitan Policy Challenge,” and the practitioner response in Networked Governance: The Future of Intergovernmental Management, pgs. 281-308. 2. Scholars have developed many different models/metaphors/concepts to describe federalism in the United States. Discuss the extent to which these models have moved the subfield forward. Discuss which model you find most persuasive, and discuss whether and why scholars should devote effort to developing models of federalism. Use these reference materials for question 2 Stephens and Wikstrom (2007), Chapter 2, “Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations: Concepts, Models and the American System” in American Intergovernmental Relations: A Fragmented Polity, pgs. 22-44. Conlan (2006), “From Cooperative to Opportunistic Federalism,” in Public Administration Review: September/October, pgs. 663-676. McGuire (2006), “Intergovernmental Management: A View from the Bottom,” in Public Administration Review: September/October, pgs. 677-679. Stephens and Wikstrom (2007), Chapter 3, “Contemporary American Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations, Cooperation and Conflict” in American Intergovernmental Relations: A Fragmented Polity, pgs. 45-53. Wise (2006),”Organizing for Homeland Security after Katrina: Is Adaptive Management What’s Missing?” in Public Administration Review: May/June, pgs. 302-318. Eisenger (2006),”Imperfect Federalism: The Intergovernmental Partnership for Homeland Security,” in Public Administration Review: July/August, pgs. 537-545.

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