My training programme will be to improve rowing.
Rowing requires a high standard of endurance and strength, therefore the components of fitness I will concentrate on improving are strength and endurance. For my training programme I will have to consider my current level of fitness, my age, health, my motivation, what I enjoy, and any injuries I have. My current level of fitness is quite high as I participate in a lot of sports.I usually go surfing on average three times a week, I play football for an hour twice a week, I swim for an hour once a week, I train for rowing or row twice a week and also I take part in approximately three hours of sport during school lessons a week.
I am 14 years old so will have to take into consideration the fact I am still growing, taking care to work alternating muscle groups and to not injure myself. At present I have a slight chest infection and am on antibiotics so I should realise my results may be slightly lower than they would be otherwise.My motivation, the reason I want to get fitter, is that I have lots of regattas and head of the river races coming up this season. I enjoy things like water activities and games, but I do not enjoy sprinting.
I do not have any serious injuries at the moment. Before training I will make some certain safety checks. For example, checking the surface and equipment – before running I will need to check the surface is clear of glass etc, and I will have to check the mats and benches are steady and not sliding before using them. All this is necessary so that I do not injure myself.
I will need to make sure I am preventing risks with my technique, e. g. straight back when using rowing machines. In addition I should wear the correct clothing when training e.
g. suitable trainers for the terrain I am using. Each training session will include a warm up, the main activity and a warm down. My warm up will be to prevent injury and to prepare mentally and physically.
Firstly I will do a short jog. This will warm my muscles, which will make them more flexible and will lower the risk of injury, it will increase heart rate and blood flow and also warm the synovial fluid to make my joints more mobile.Next I will do a variety of static stretches to increase the range of movement at joints and prevent injury. I will work all the main joints and stretch the main muscles that I will be using.
These are such as hamstrings, gastrocnemius and trapezius. Each stretch will be held for at least 10 seconds with no bouncing I will include some diagrams of the stretches on a later page. To end the warm up I will do another short jog gradually increasing my speed on the way to full pace. As well as working my muscles this will help me prepare mentally.
In my warm down I will help my body to recover.I will start with a few minutes of gentle jogging. This will keep my circulation going so more oxygen reaches the muscles and lactic acid will be cleared away faster. This will help to prevent soreness.
I will finish with some stretches. These will mean less stiffness, as after heavy exercise muscles often get very tight. I will do some active and passive stretching for the muscles I have been using e. g.
gastrocnemius, abdominals and hamstrings. When planning my programme I need to think of the principles of training. These are specificity, progression, overload, reversibility and tedium.Specificity will include training certain parts of my body for the specific sport I have chosen rowing.
Progression will involve adapting to my training programme gradually to stop the risk of injury. My training programme will hopefully show the improvement from specificity and progression by monitoring myself pre-training and post-training. Overload is making your session’s harder work than usual to improve your fitness. I can overload each training session in four different ways.
1. Frequency how often I exercise 2. Intensity how hard I work, e. g.
run faster, lift heavier weights 3.Time increase how long I exercise, duration 4. Type change the type of exercise I do. This may make it a good idea to run my programme for 6 weeks, with fitness tests in the 1st and 6th weeks, and overloading the main activity each week.
I will try and do a variety of exercise throughout the 6 weeks to prevent tedium and boredom. The principle of reversibility means that improvements in fitness are reversible. If I stop exercising the fitness will be lost. I need to be aware of this and therefore do a sensible amount of training at home spread out throughout the week and continuing after the programme has finished.
I will be doing three main types of training: Circuit training for strength Interval training for speed and endurance Continuous training for endurance stamina If my results in the last week of the programme are substantially better in the first week this will prove my training programme was successful. Throughout the training programme I will try my best to complete al the tasks I have set myself. Week 1 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Fitness Tests In the first week I performed some various fitness tests, so at the end of my programme I could do the tests again and evaluate the changes.PRE-TRAINING Resting heart rate 24 Strength test 26 Speed test 14 I took my resting heart rate for 15 seconds with two fingers on the carotid artery in the neck.
The strength test – this test was in the form of press-ups. A friend timed me for 30 seconds. They counted how many proper press-ups I did in this time, with my arms going to a right angle. Any false press-ups were disallowed.
The speed test Ã¢â‚¬â€œ this test was in the form of shuttle runs/sprints. I had to run continuously for 30 seconds over a distance of 5 metres, putting one foot over the line before turning.Only full runs were counted. Multistage fitness test TIME HR – PRE-TRAINING Resting heart rate 24 Immediately after 46 1 minute after 40 2 minutes after 30 3 minutes after 25 4 minutes after 24 5 minutes after 24 Level reached 9.
6 This test measures my maximal oxygen consumption. This is the maximum volume of oxygen I am able to use when exercising. The larger the value, the fitter you are. I ran 2/3rds of a netball court, then turned and ran back.
Both feet must be across the line each time the beep sounds. When the beep speeds up I must speed up to, in order to get to the line in time.Stop when you cannot keep up with the beep. I recorded the level and the number of shuttles I did.
My pulse was taken for 15seconds in the carotid artery immediately after the test. I recorded my recovery rate after this by taking my pulse every minute for 5 minutes as I did before, 15seconds on the carotid artery. How did I feel? Evaluating: I found the press-ups test very easy as I do them fairly regularly. I found the speed test hard and I was not especially good at it.
The multistage fitness test started off easy but it obviously got a lot harder. I felt I could have carried on for longer.There were a couple of things that influenced my performance. For the multistage fitness and speed tests I was not wearing very ‘grippy’ trainers, making the turning harder.
I am also still trying to recover from a bad chest and it was a boiling hot day. Week 2 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Circuit The circuit I did had 10 stations. They are listed in a table below. Here is a very simple diagram of how my circuit was laid out.
Station Reps Time on each station Rest in between each station 1. Triceps dips 30 60 seconds 30 seconds 2. Step ups 46 60 seconds 30 seconds 3. Bench press 39 60 seconds 30 seconds 4.
Sit ups 29 60 seconds 30 seconds 5. Wall bar climbs 10 60 seconds 30 seconds 6. Chin ups 36 60 seconds 30 seconds 7. Burpees 21 60 seconds 30 seconds 8.
Bench jumps 45 60 seconds 30 seconds 9. Press-ups 40 60 seconds 30 seconds 10. Skipping 54 60 seconds 30 seconds Triceps dips Ã¢â‚¬â€œ These are performed with the hands facing forward on a bench, facing away from the bench and the legs outstretched in front of you. They work mainly on the triceps and biceps.
I found that my hamstrings felt they were being stretched a lot also as I am quite unflexible. Diagram Step ups Ã¢â‚¬â€œ These again are performed on a bench.You simply step up and down quickly on the bench, both feet must be on the bench before one is moved down. These work mainly on the hamstrings, quadriceps and gastrocnemius.
This is an example of concentric and eccentric contraction. The hamstrings and quadriceps working together is antagonistic muscle action. Diagram Bench press Ã¢â‚¬â€œ These are done by placing a bench safely on the wall bars roughly inline with your shoulders. With your feet apart to about the width of you shoulders, take the bench in your hands and extend your arms until they are straightened.
Bring your hands back down to your shoulders, slightly flexing the knees Ã¢â‚¬â€œ this is one complete bench press. These work mainly on the trapezius, triceps and biceps, but they are also putting pressure on the legs. Diagram Sit-ups Ã¢â‚¬â€œ I did regular sit-ups with no one holding my feet Ã¢â‚¬â€œ on a mat, hands gently on temples, tapping my knees with my elbows. This works mainly on the abdominal.
The quadriceps may be working as isometric muscular action. Diagram Wall bar climbs Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Simply climb up and down the wall bars, taking at least 3 footings on each climb, touching the top with 1 hand and the floor with both feet.Be aware of safety Ã¢â‚¬â€œ make sure mat is steady and watch foot placing. This is working the main leg muscles that are needed for good rowing.
Diagram Chin-ups / pull-ups Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Done on a low bar, approximately just above by head. I sat on a mat with my legs outstretched in front of me, and lifted my self up so my chin was over the bar, then back down so I almost touched the mat again. This was one complete ‘chin’- up. Pull-ups are an example of isotonic training.
They strengthen the muscles through a full range of movement. They will work on the upper body, mainly triceps and biceps, which good rowers require.Diagram Burpees Ã¢â‚¬â€œ In a press up position, go into a squat then jump up to a standing position with the arms outstretched above the head. These work on the arm muscles but again they are mainly working on the hamstrings, quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles Ã¢â‚¬â€œ these are some of the most important muscles for rowing.
Diagram Bench jumps Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Stand with a bench in-between your legs, jump up and down lifting both legs at the same time onto the bench, then back to the floor. Working the leg muscles but I also found I needed to concentrate on good breathing, which is crucial for head of the river races in rowing.Diagram Press-ups Ã¢â‚¬â€œ This will work with most of the muscles on the upper body, e. g.
pectorals, trapezius, triceps and biceps. Press-ups are an example of isotonic muscular action. The biceps and triceps contracting and relaxing is antagonistic muscle action. Diagram Skipping Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Simple skipping, standing on the spot, both feet up and down in time.
I found skipping worked a range of muscles, including the gastrocnemius, hamstring and abdominals. Diagram The stations are in this order so that I am working alternate muscle groups between work and recovery to allow lactic acid dispersal.How did I feel? Evaluating: After the circuit I felt very tired and shaky. I felt I had worked flat out and I was fairly pleased with my results.
I didn’t enjoy all of it, there was lots of tough work on the arms and I thought it was slightly boring Ã¢â‚¬â€œ music could have helped. I will consider listening to music on a future circuit. Things I did not perform properly Ã¢â‚¬â€œ on the first 10 triceps dips my hands were facing the wrong way and on about 5 sit-ups I allowed my arms to lever my self up. Week 2 – Interval Training The interval training I did was on a netball court.
I walked one third of the netball court, jogged the next third, then turned and sprinted back two thirds. I repeated this 8 times. How did I feel? Evaluating: After doing the interval training I was fairly out of breath but I felt I recovered very quickly, so believed I could have worked harder. I didn’t totally enjoy this as I do not like sprinting, but having friends with a faster pace to keep up with was quite encouraging.
Week 2 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Home Sessions I did what I consider 2 small sessions at home in this week as well as the usual sport. I did 5 pull-ups every day.I chose these to improve the strength mainly in my trapezius, as these are needed for rowing. I also went for a 30-minute jog to improve the strength and endurance of my leg muscles, and also to help my breathing.
I felt this was a satisfactory amount of training at home, considering I also did a lot of sport over the weekend Ã¢â‚¬â€œ I took part in the Rip Curl English Surfing Nationals which I won! , meaning I surfed 4 times on Saturday, 4 times on Sunday and 4 times on Monday. This week I also played football for 1 hour. I enjoyed my home sessions more than I did the interval training.I felt I did everything properly.
Week 3 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Circuit Training The circuit I did was set out in the same way. I applied the principle of overload by decreasing the rest from 30 seconds to 25 seconds, meaning I had less time to recover. Station Reps Time on each station Rest in between each station 1. Triceps dips 41 60 seconds 25 seconds 2.
Step ups 47 60 seconds 25 seconds 3. Bench press 36 60 seconds 25 seconds 4. Sit ups 29 60 seconds 25 seconds 5. Wall bar climbs 15 60 seconds 25 seconds 6.
Chin ups 42 60 seconds 25 seconds 7. Burpees 24 60 seconds 25 seconds 8.Bench jumps 49 60 seconds 25 seconds 9. Press-ups 35 60 seconds 25 seconds 10.
Skipping 65 60 seconds 25 seconds How did I feel? Evaluating: I was pleased that I improved everywhere except bench press and press-ups. This most likely shows the training I have been doing seems to have helped already. Again I felt I had worked just about flat out and I did all the stations correctly. Week 3 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Interval training In this week I did the same basic route Ã¢â‚¬â€œ walk 1 third, jog 1 third, turn and sprint 2 thirds.
I applied the principle of overload by doing more repetitions, 8 instead of 10.Overload is to make my session’s harder work than usual to improve my fitness. How did I feel? Evaluating: I felt I worked a lot harder than last week, but still perhaps my sprints could have been faster or more repetitions number of times. I didn’t think this workload was enough considering my present fitness Ã¢â‚¬â€œ I will consider this next week and perhaps overload a lot more.
Week 3 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Home Sessions This week at home I again did 2 home sessions that I would not normally have done. Last week I went for a 30 minute jog so this week I chose a route of further distance and took 40 minutes to apply overload.For my second session I did 1000m at racing pace on a rowing machine, then went for a 5 minute jog to help get rid of lactic acid that had built up, then did another 1000m on a machine to see if my time stayed roughly the same even though I had used up a lot of energy already. My first time was 4:08; my second was 4:11.
This was a form of specific training Ã¢â‚¬â€œ rowing on a machine is obviously training the same muscles as normal rowing would and at the same time working on my technique. This week I also played rounders twice, football for 2 hours and surfed at the weekend. How did I feel?Evaluating: I felt exhausted after my run so I must have been working fairly hard, and after each 1000m I felt sick I had worked so hard. My warm down was very intense so I did not feel at all stiff or sore the next day.
Week 4 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Circuit training The circuit I performed was again set out in the same way, except we were unable to find the skipping ropes so we did shuttle runs instead. We also played music as an incentive to see if this helped us prevent boredom. I applied the principle of overload by keeping the rest the same but increasing the time on each station to 1:10.Station Reps Time on each station Rest in between each station 1.
Triceps dips 54 70 seconds 25 seconds 2. Step ups 50 70 seconds 25 seconds 3. Bench press 46 70 seconds 25 seconds 4. Sit ups 36 70 seconds 25 seconds 5.
Wall bar climbs 15 70 seconds 25 seconds 6. Chin ups 47 70 seconds 25 seconds 7. Burpees 25 70 seconds 25 seconds 8. Bench jumps 42 70 seconds 25 seconds 9.
Press-ups 31 70 seconds 25 seconds 10. Shuttle runs 39 70 seconds 25 seconds How did I feel? Evaluating: Today was a boiling hot day and I think this was a factor affecting my performance.Most of my stations increased proving my training programme is working. The music definitely helped prevent the circuit becoming boring, but I feel it maybe distracted me from counting how many reps I did.
This time I felt the circuit easier to complete and it seemed to go faster even though it was realistically longer, this may also be another point proving I am becoming fitter. Week 4 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Interval Training This week I applied the principle of overload by increasing the walk to a jog but keeping it as 10 repetitions, meaning I did it as shown below.How did I feel? Evaluating: This week I felt I had successfully worked almost flat out during interval training. It was a very hot day but I felt what did it was not having the walk to recover.
I felt generally fitter today and although I worked harder I also recovered very quickly. Week 4 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Home Sessions Again this week at home I did 2 sessions, including a 30-minute run. I applied overload to this by choosing a much steeper and tougher terrain. I also did 10 press-ups everyday of the week to improve upper body strength required for rowing.
At home I also went swimming for 1 extra hour, played football for an hour and went surfing. How did I feel? Evaluating: I feel my home sessions are helping the interval training and circuit training become easier. I think I am doing enough in my sessions at home considering I am also doing a lot of excess sport. Week 5 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Circuit Training I did the same circuit as last week, applying the principle of overload by decreasing the rest Ã¢â‚¬â€œ giving me less time to recover.
Station Reps Time on each station Rest in between each station 1. Triceps dips 54 70 seconds 20 seconds 2.Step ups 55 70 seconds 20 seconds 3. Bench press 48 70 seconds 20 seconds 4.
Sit ups 40 70 seconds 20 seconds 5. Wall bar climbs 17 70 seconds 20 seconds 6. Chin ups 49 70 seconds 20 seconds 7. Burpees 27 70 seconds 20 seconds 8.
Bench jumps 42 70 seconds 20 seconds 9. Press-ups 40 70 seconds 20 seconds 10. Shuttle runs 47 70 seconds 20 seconds How did I feel? Evaluating: Again this week we listened to music as we did the circuit, I definitely enjoy the circuit more this way. I felt the circuit easier again this week although I was working hard.
Again most of my repetitions at each station increased proving my strength has done the same. Week 5 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Interval training I did the same as last time but applied overload by increasing the repetitions from 10 to 12. How did I feel? Evaluating: I felt I worked hard today and concentrated more on sprinting faster. I think my sprinting has definitely got faster due to the training I’ve been doing.
I recovered quickly and was generally pleased with my performance, although I felt ‘weasy’ because of my asthma. Week 5 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Home sessions This week I completed two home sessions again.From last weeks, I applied overload by increasing my 10 press-ups a day to 12 a day. I also went swimming for an extra hour to what I normally do to improve my strength and endurance.
How did I feel? Evaluating: I think there are visible results in my muscle tones now from all the press-ups I have been doing. I am still pleased with my home performance, keeping it up, I didn’t think I would stick totally to the programme but I have. Week 6 Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Fitness Tests This is the last week of my programme, so I will be performing the 3 fitness tests I did in the first week.Again I took my resting heart rate for 15 seconds on the carotid artery so I could compare the results easily.
POST-TRAINING Resting heart rate 20 Strength test 29 Speed test 15 How did I feel? Evaluating: I found the press-ups test very easy, but felt I could have done a lot more in the 30seconds. I was pleased that my scores improved in all areas. Multistage fitness test TIME HR – POST-TRAINING Resting heart rate 20 Immediately after 44 1 minute after 40 2 minutes after 29 3 minutes after 26 4 minutes after 23 5 minutes after 22 Level reached 9. How did I feel? Evaluating: I think this week it was a lot windier than the 1st week I had done the test, this was a factor affecting my performance.
Another is that I still have a bad chest. I will need to consider this when comparing my results. Comparing Results Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Fitness tests Pre-Training Post- Training Resting heart rate 24 20 Strength test 26 29 Speed Test 14 15 Endurance Test 9. 6 9.
5 The fact that my resting heart rate has decreased shows my general fitness has improved.My strength and speed have also been enhanced from the programme, proved by my ability to do more press-ups in the set time and sprint more laps. On the endurance test there were reasons, explained above, that I think I did not do as well. Multistage fitness test Time after exercise HR pre-training HR post-training Immediately 46 44 1 min 40 40 2 mins 30 29 3 mins 25 26 4 mins 24 23 5 mins 24 22 Summary My resting heart rate and maximum heart rate were lower after the training programme, showing fitness improvement, but my recovery rate did not improve dramatically.
This may have been because on the day we did the final fitness tests I had a chest infection, which seemed to have been getting worse over the last 6 weeks! This is a graph of my recovery rate pre training and post training. Series 2 is post training, series 1 is pre training. This graph just shows that post training programme my heart rate was lower, did not rise as much after the work load and that I recovered efficiently, but not as well as I could have. This is all as I said in the summary above.
Evaluation of my training programme I feel the level of my training programme was appropriate considering the amount of training I normally do. It was not too easy, as I have not done too much strength training before but it was not too difficult because I was able to stick to the programme and complete each session successfully. I think the order of the circuit was very good, as it was working alternate and opposing muscle groups, there was never continuous stations working on the same parts so not much lactic acid would build and cause fatigue.My training programme showed the principle of overload, by describing how I decreased the rests, or increased the workload.
I showed progression by gradually adapting to my programme, then progressively applying overload. Progression was mainly shown by comparing the fitness tests from the 1st week and last. I found my training programme fairly easy to manage. It was hard to find time at home to work out what, where and when I was going to do for each session in between homework and other social activities.
But I did manage it and I completed everything I set myself, which I am proud of.I think I enjoyed everything, the circuit training and interval training was fun as I was with friends so there was a good working atmosphere, and the home sessions were good as I could choose things I was interested in, such as swimming. The exercises I did were probably very suitable for my chosen sport rowing; I used specificity when I chose which muscle groups to work on, and also the strength and endurance training was originally chosen for rowing. My post training results were mainly improved and this was expected.
I was disappointed my level on the multistage fitness test did not improve but this was explainable, and did not necessarily show my fitness had not improved in this area. I think my abilities of strength and endurance definitely improved, but there were various factors affecting my performance on each given day. My performance in rowing and other sports has improved since I have started my training programme. When rowing I feel I can put a lot more effort into my strokes for a longer time, and afterwards I feel totally recovered a lot sooner than I used to.
In football I think my training has helped too, I feel it is easier to have a sudden outburst and sprint for the ball when I need to, a I run up and down the pitch more competently. If I was to do the training programme again I think I would change the interval training. This is because when I am doing the circuit training I feel it is good to have a certain number more than last weeks score to achieve, but when doing the interval training I am unsure of how fast to do my jogs/sprints.Maybe it would be a good idea to time myself on interval training then I could try and complete the set number of repetitions faster than the previous week.
If I decide to continue to train like I have been, so I do not loose my fitness the principle of reversibility, I will keep steadily applying overload. I may change some of the stations on the circuit to ones I enjoy more. Most things I would probably keep the same though as my training programme has been a success!