“Nuclear Nonproliferation and Security in the 21st Century” Please select one essay question. The paper should be between 1500 – 2000 words. A good answer will relate to the material covered in class and the reading material in the syllabus, as well as additional sources of your choice. You are strongly encouraged to use additional material outside the syllabus to support your argument. Please ensure that when you quote sources, you include the name of the author, the title of the article or book, the journal title (if relevant), page number and the year of publication, etc. You are requested to include footnotes or endnotes citing the material used. You may also include a listing of the sources you have used at the end of your paper, but this is not mandatory. Pick one of the essay prompts below. In your response, please ensure that you clearly specify the question you are answering. Essay Questions –“We will look back with nostalgia to the cold war era. The post-cold war period is infinitely more dangerous.” Do you agree with this statement? Discuss with reference to the literature on the cold war period (including the Cuban Missiles Crisis), the current tensions between Russia and the West and any other cases you may wish to mention. –Why do states build nuclear weapons? In answering this question, please refer to the cases of North Korea and Iran, as well as to the United States and Russia (and any other cases that are relevant), based upon the discussions held in class. –What is extended deterrence? How has this been expressed during the cold war period and today? –What are the advantages and disadvantages of the JCPOA (the nuclear deal between Iran and the world powers)? –What is the ‘Begin Doctrine’? How has this been expressed in the past in Israel’s defense policy and is it still relevant today? — What are the possible regional and global consequences of an Iran with nuclear weapons? –Is NATO still relevant? Please discuss with reference to NATO’s role during the cold war period and the role it is playing today. — “Luck, rather than bipolarity and an effective nuclear deterrence structure, was the vital ingredient in the long peace of 1945-1990.” Do you agree? In your discussion, please include a reference to the Cuban missile crisis and/or the ‘Able Archer’ episode and any other cases which you feel are relevant. –“The Non-Proliferation regime is discriminatory and perpetuates inequality but it works.” To what degree do you agree with this statement on the Non-Proliferation Treaty and its effectiveness in stemming proliferation? –Discuss the role that the Iron Dome system played during Israel’s wars with Hamas in 2012 and 2014 as well as the more recent confrontations, and the role played by missile defense in addressing threats to Israel’s national security. –“The single biggest threat to U.S. security, both short term, medium term, and long term, would be the possibility of a terrorist organization obtaining a nuclear weapon” (Barack Obama, 2010). Please discuss this statement in relation to the danger of terrorists obtaining weapons of mass destruction in Pakistan, Iraq and Syria, as well as other cases that are relevant. –Why is the United States deploying missile defense systems in Europe, the Middle East and East Asia? Will these systems help to strengthen or undermine global stability? –“Today, I state clearly and with conviction America’s commitment to seek the peace and security of a world without nuclear weapons. I’m not naive. This goal will not be reached quickly –- perhaps not in my lifetime. It will take patience and persistence. But now we, too, must ignore the voices who tell us that the world cannot change. We have to insist, “Yes, we can.” (Barack Obama, 2008) Discuss the efforts of the global campaign to achieve nuclear disarmament over the past sixty years. Is a world free of nuclear weapons an achievable goal? –What are the strengths and weaknesses of the Chemical Weapons Convention? What have the cases of Syria, Iraq and Libya taught us in regard to the ability of the international community to address the threat of weapons of mass destruction? –“Nuclear weapons can help to stabilize conflict-ridden relationships.” Do you agree with this statement? Discuss with reference to the debate between Ganguly and Kapur (“India, Pakistan and the Bomb”) over the role of nuclear weapons in the relationship between India and Pakistan and any other cases you may feel are relevant. –“Kim Jong-un will never give up North Korea’s nuclear weapons.” Discuss. –What is the difference between nuclear arms control and nuclear disarmament? –“Although it is impossible to be certain of Iranian intentions, it is far more likely that if Iran desires nuclear weapons, it is for the purpose of providing for its own security, not to improve its offensive capabilities or destroy itself. (Kenneth Waltz) ” Discuss.