This assignment is building on Developing Your Project Framework:
Occupational Contact Dermatitis”
Occupational Contact Dermatitis
The term dermatitis” is used by many clinicians in a synonymous way to the term eczema”. The term is used to describe the inflammatory reactions on the skin. The reactions are characterised by itching of the skin and redness of the parts of the skin that itch or the parts that are affected. However, the symptoms may vary from slight levels of thickening on the outermost layer of the skin on the affected parts with small portions and fissures to extensive portions of redness, swelling and in some cases oozing (Cahill, Williams & Matheson, 2012). The condition occurs in two main ways. It may be entirely endogenous or be entirely exogenous. Exogenous dermatitis is also called contact dermatitis and is caused by irritant or allergic contact reactions of both of them.
Occupational contact dermatitis ranks among the major and the highest known and dangerous occupational diseases in many countries. It is the type of contact dermatitis in which the inflammatory reactions that causes itching and reddening is entirely caused by occupational contact or where such reactions and contacts are in a way responsible for contributing to the itching and reddening on the affected skin. Majorly, occupational contact dermatitis affects the hands of the patients. However, with time, the condition may be transferred to the other parts of the body such as the forearms (American Contact Dermatitis Society., & North American Contact Dermatitis Group, 2014). The condition accounts for more than 60% of all the skin infections and disease that are reported and which in turn causes or leads to an approximate 40-70% of all the illnesses that are acquired through professional means and methods. According to Cherry,Meyer,Adiseshet al. (2009), the incident rate of the contact condition is believed to range between 0.5 to 1.9 cases per a population of 1000 full time employees per year.
While many people, including children are often affected by skin diseases and infections, occupational contact dermatitis should be suspected depending on the location affected by the illness. If the area affected is the hands, then contact dermatitis should be the first disease suspected. Three characteristics and factors should be considered to identify the causal incident. If the area affected is the hands and the exposed skin, the condition improves when far from the workplace and then reoccurs or relapses back on return to the work environment and if numerous individuals are affected in the same working environment or handling or coming into contact with some particular object, then occupational contact dermatitis should be the first suspected illness.
Dermatitis is considered occupational if it is caused by coming into contact with a specific object of machinery at the workplace. It is called contact dermatitis because it involves the individuals getting into contact with the objects or the machines. The illness is not very dangerous if treated early. However, if ignored or not treated in a timely manner, it can lead to long term consequences on the affected individuals and in the extreme cases may lead to their abilities to work being challenged. According to Cahill, Williams & Matheson, (2012), if one of the employees in a company is affected by the disease, upto 50% of the employees in the company may be affected and may be showing signs even after 10 years with the condition (American Contact Dermatitis Society., & North American Contact Dermatitis Group, 2014).
Identification of the Clinical Problem
Occupational contact dermatitis is a major challenge to the working force in the world today. According to Nicholson, Llewellyn, English (2010), occupational contact dermatitis is responsible for over 95% of the skin diseases and infections in the world. However, on a national scales, occupational contact dermatitis has more major and vital challenges and problems. It leads to financial implications in terms of the costs involved in the medical treatment, absence of the employees from work leading to reduced productivity in the workplace, compensations from the social welfare organizations and the possible claims by the civil servants and non-governmental organizations (American Contact Dermatitis Society., & North American Contact Dermatitis Group, 2014). The disease brings other costs to the workers in terms of pain, sufferings and the inability for the employees to work.
What is disturbing about the state of the illness is that even with the many challenges and costs involved in the treatment, very few organizations invest to ensure the safety of their employees from the disease. Very few researches have been done on the field to identify and come up with means to deal with the challenge. Moreover, the study of dermatitis is uncommon and very few employees actually have any information about the condition and how it may be prevented (Frosch, Menne´ &Lepoittevin, 2012). This research project is aimed at understanding the prevalence of the disease among the working population, the awareness of the employees and how to manage the condition and how the organizations and companies may assist their employees to prevent an outbreak of such an illness and how to deal with the disease to prevent the infection of other employees in the company (Cahill, Williams & Matheson, 2012). The research aims to add to the existing literature information that is relevant for the management of the condition and on understanding the disease in a more elaborate manner.
Significant of the Problem
Nursing is involved in the treatment and the management of illnesses and diseases. Being one of the conditions that nursing and the medical team should be concerned with, it is very vital and necessary that the nurses have complete information and understanding of the disease.
Statement of the PICOT Question
The PICOT is a model that is used to define nursing research or project questions. PICOT is an acronym that is used to identify the components of the definition of a research question. P stands for the problem. This paper aims to understand if antibodies assist in the treatment of the occupational contact dermatitis. I stands for the Intervention that the researchers want to do for the patients. The research framework aims to assess the symptoms and towards the determination of the type of dermatitis that is affecting an individual and entail or provide recommendations for the patient on how to deal with the infection.C stands for comparison. This is the alternative to the provided intervention plan. This research will aim to compare whether it is necessary or not to provide antibodies which will assist to absorb the negative implications of the allergic reactions that result from allergens and irritants. O represents the expected outcome from the research or experiment. The expected outcome of the research is to assist the patients in fully recovering from the illness and from the irritation with the avoidance of irritants and allergens. Finally, T represents the expected timeframe for the research work. The results of the assignment are expected to be obtained within a period of between one month and six months.
The PICOT question for the assignment is related to how antibodies can be used in treatment of patients suffering from occupational contact dermatitis, how can the illness be assessed to identify the kind of dermatitis affecting the population as compared to other intervention plans in the healthcare systems to assist the patients recover from the disease over a period of between one month and six months.
The theoretical framework for a research relates to the basis of philosophy on which the research takes place and forms the connection between the philosophical components and the practical component of the research. The theoretical framework is the basis for any research.The first step in the conduction or execution of any work of research is to develop a methodology for the research which relates to the strategies, the plans of action, the processes or the designs and linking the choice of the methods and the methods to obtain the required objectives. The theoretical framework defines and describes how a work of research or gathering of information will be conducted. The following discussion describes how this research will be conducted.
The responsibility of a safe working environment solely lies on the employer. The employer should always ensure that the work environment in which the employees are subjected to is safe for working. However, due to the cost implications that are involved in establishing a safe working environment, employers often ignore this important aspect of work place safety. To ensure this does not happen, government and other authorities have a role in ensuring that the employers do not flout the set safety standards and exposing the employees to grave dangers that can lead to occupational contact dermatitis.
According to Christenbery 2011, there should be a clear model that should be followed in order to ensure that the employers are responsible for their actions and they are held responsible for any occupational accidents that employees can suffer while in the workplace. According to her, the outlined model should be the standard operating procedure that must be adhered to by all the players in the affected industry. There should also be provisions that should be outlined stipulating clearly what should be done in the event that the players in these industries cause injuries to the workers as a result of negligence.
McCrae 2012 in his article outlines the importance of the adoption of evidence based models in the prevention of occupational contact dermatitis in the work place. These views are based on the fact that when a practice that has already been tested and proved is transferred for use in other places, the results are likely to be impressive as the practice has already been approved to be effective. According to him, instituting trial and error methods should only be used as the last resort when there is no evidence based practice that is available. In treatment of employees suffering from occupational contact dermatitis, the nurses should ensure that results from previous cases are sought and if possible adopted for use in the current situation.
In the places of work, evidence based practice should as well be a standard practice. In this case, employers who have put in place the most effective safety measures in their work place to protect their employees against occupational contact dermatitis. These best practices should be transferred to other work places that have been identified to experience challenges in their practice.
In their book, White and Dudley examine how theory can be translated into practice. Their views are based on the realization that that there is a lot of theory but it is not reflected into practice. This theory is obtained through research that brings out new methods of practice. However, the theory in some instances is not put into practice due to poor implementation. As such, the two scholars feel that if the research findings are put into practice, then it would be possible for occupational hazards to be prevented. There are effective methods that have been identified as effective for addressing problems that are related to occupational contact dementia. These practices should be employed across the board to ensure that complications that arise from this condition are minimized. In addition, it has been identified through research that there are some protective strategies that can be used to minimize or eliminate incidents of occupational contact dementia. These identified practices should be adopted transferred to the places of work so as to ensure that workers are protected from any hazard that can affect their skin.
Schneider’s’ Conceptual Model
Numerous methods and techniques have been applied in measuring the level of dermal exposure on individuals after contact with a dermal or a skin infection. However, there has been limited strides that have been taken towards the standardization of the exposure measures. In this light, Schneider developed a conceptual model to measure the level of dermal exposure of the patients. The model measures the concentration of the contaminant in the skins since it is the difference in concentration level on the skin contamination layer and the perfused tissues that drives the uptake of the contaminant. This method is mainly applied by health organizations and institutions to determine the level of contamination of the skin in the employees or the patients.
Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure
This is a general model that is mainly that is mainly used to predict the exposure of employees to a particular hazard at the workplace. It was first developed in the 1990s but has since gained popularity in the use and application. Version 2.0, which is in operation today, was developed by the UK Health and Safety Executive. It is a knowledge-based model that is used by regulators and the management of organization and companies for assessing the existing as the news substance and toxic substances. Once and individual or an employee in a company have been diagnosed with the occupational contact dermatitis, the model is applied to assess the level of infection or exposure of the other employees to the infection.
In conclusion, it is clear that proper management with curative result of occupational contact dermatitis is a function of cooperative patient as well as dedicated health care provider armed with right investigative skills and open mind. While workers are at times badly exposed to conditions and substances that can be hazardous to their skin, it is paramount that employer take adequate precautionary measures. The health care give on the other hand should not just be in a position to properly diagnose and treat dermatitis, but must have adequate knowledge on physics, chemistry, human biology, epidemiology and industrial processes. In addition to this, all stakeholders must be well versed with the workers compensation provision as per law and be ready to testify in a court of law if called upon to do so.
American Contact Dermatitis Society.,& North American Contact Dermatitis Group. (2014).
Dermatitis: Contact, atopic, occupational, drug : official journal of the American Contact Dermatitis Society, North American Contact Dermatitis Group. Hamilton, Ont: BC Decker.
Cherry N, Meyer J, Adisesh A et al. (2009). Surveillance of occupational skin disease:
EPIDERM and OPRA. British Journal of Dermatology: 142: 1128-1134
Christenbery’s, L. (2011). Building a Schematic Model: A Blueprint for DNP Students,”
Nurse Educator, 36 (6), 250–255
Cahill J, Williams J. D. L., Matheson, M. C et al. (2012). Occupational contact dermatitis: A
review of 18 years of data from an occupational dermatology clinic in Australia. Canberra: Safe Work Australia.
Frosch, P. J., Menne´, T., &Lepoittevin, J.-P. (2012). Contact dermatitis. Berlin: Springer.
McCrae’s, L. (2012). Whither Nursing models? The Value of Nursing Theory in the Context
of Evidence-based Practice and Multidisciplinary Health Care,” Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68(1), 222–229.
Nicholson P, Llewellyn D, English J. (2010).Evidence-based guidelines for the prevention,
identification and management of occupational contact dermatitis and urticaria. Contact Dermatitis: 63: 177-186
Method: Describe a potential intervention. For example:
Implement a practice change initiative.
Develop a new policy.
Evaluate outcome data to measure success of an intervention or strategy.
Why do you believe this would answer your clinical question/problem? What evidence exists that this intervention would answer your question? (Support with existing scholarly literature.)
Design: Describe a potential intervention design or method. For example:
Case study research.
Qualitative descriptive research.
Clinical intervention study.
Systematic literature review.
Integrative literature review.
Why did you choose this design or method?
Setting: Analyze the setting. Why is this setting appropriate? Who are the stakeholders who will need to be involved in the project? How open is the organization to change? What are the potential limitations to implementing a study there?
Data: Describe how data will be collected. Do you anticipate using any instruments? Where did you find the instruments, and how will they apply to your specific project? Include the validity and reliability of any instruments to be used. Describe how data will be measured using statistics, as appropriate.
Written communication: It should be free of errors that detract from the overall message.
APA formatting: Resources and citations are formatted according to APA (6th edition) style and formatting.
Minimum number of resources: Work should be supported with at least five scholarly resources.
Length of paper: 7–10 typed, double-spaced pages, not including title page and references.
Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12-point.