[Solved] biology cholera assignment

When humans ingest cholera bacteria, they may not become sick themselves, but they still pass the bacteria in other ways such as contaminating food or water applies, which can serve as ideal breeding grounds for the cholera bacteria. Cholera usually isn’t transmitted through casual person-to-person contact as more than a million cholera bacteria (one glass of contaminated water) are needed to cause illness. The main types of transmission are: Cholera bacteria can lie dormant in water for long periods of time, and contaminated public wells are common sources of the large scale cholera outbreaks.

People living in crowded conditions without adequate sanitation are more at risk. Eating raw or undercooked seafood can expose you to cholera bacteria. In regions where holler is widespread, grains such as rice are contaminated after cooking and left in room temperature for several hours becomes a medium for the growth of the cholera bacteria. Raw, unpeeled fruits and vegetables are a frequent source of cholera infection in areas where cholera is common. In developing nations (such as Bangladesh), manure fertilizers or irrigation water containing raw sewage can contaminate produce in the field.

Host Response: (reference 1 & 12 & 14) If the V. Cholera bacteria is successful in passing through the body’s first defense barrier (in this case the acidic environment in the stomach or alkaline environment in the small intestine), then it goes through the second defense barrier inside the body where phagocytes (white blood cells) which can actively move from the blood to the tissue, attempt to engulf and destroy the bacteria (phagocytes). These barriers are non specific.

In cases where the bacteria reach the body’s third defense barrier, different specific types of blood cells such as T cells are activated to kill the bacteria directly. There are different types of T cells and B cells. There are four types of T cells which include: I. T Killer- destroys the cells which carry foreign antigens 2. T Helper- help B cells 3. T Inducer- initiates the immune response 4. T Suppressor- stops the immune response B Cells control the blood response and produces antibodies to kill any pathogens present.

Cholera works by attacking cell membranes, changing the balance of water and dissolved particles inside and outside the cell. It’s been found that when someone has the disease cholera, the cholera bacteria, sticks to the walls of the intestines and makes many tiny holes, or pores, through the cell membranes of the cells of the intestinal walls. Since all cells have water, the cells lost water through its pores. Major Symptoms: (reference 3) Cholera is an extremely dangerous disease and can possibly kill within hours.

Most people who are infected with V. Cholera do not develop any symptoms, although the bacteria can be present in their faces for 7-14 days after infection and can still infect others. (reference 3) Only about 5% of people who are infected get the severe symptoms which include: Cholera-related diarrhea comes on suddenly and may quickly cause dangerous fluid loss. Diarrhea due to cholera often has a pale, milky appearance that resembles water in which rice has been rinsed. Nausea and vomiting which can occur in both early and later stages.

Depending on how many body fluids have been lost, dehydration can range from mild to severe. Severe dehydration occurs when 10 percent or more of total body weight is lost. (reference 4) In less extreme situations, people who don’t receive treatment may die of dehydration and shock 18 hours to several days after cholera symptoms first appear Dehydration brings along terrible cramps of the limbs and abdominal muscle, and while the attempts to empty the already empty stomach causes continual retching and hugging (reference 9)

Treatment: (reference 5) Up to 80% of people can be treated successfully through Oral Reiteration Salts (OURS). The OURS solution is available as a powder that can be reconstituted in boiled or bottled water. Without reiteration, approximately half the people with cholera die. With treatment, the number of fatalities drops to less than 1 percent. Very severely dehydrated patients require administration of intravenous fluids. During a cholera epidemic, most people can be helped by oral reiteration alone, but severely dehydrated people may also need intravenous fluids.

Severe patients also might require antibiotics. Some of these drugs may reduce both the amount and duration of cholera-related diarrhea. Prevention: (reference 7 & 8 & 10) Hands should be washed frequently, especially before handling food and after using the toilet. Only drink water that you know is safe. E. G. Bottled water or water that has been disinfected or boiled to remove any pathogens. Food should be completely cooked and hot before it’s consumed. Street food should be avoided. Avoid sushi, as well as raw or improperly cooked fish and seafood of any kind.

Better to stick to fruits and vegetables which skins can be peeled (bananas) ND avoid those that can’t (grapes) Be wary of dairy foods, including ice cream, which is often contaminated and unappreciated milk. Keep kitchen or place where food and water is prepared clean Control: (reference 10) Once the outbreak of cholera is detected, the usual intervention strategy is to reduce deaths by ensuring prompt access to treatment and controlling the spread of the disease by providing safe water, proper sanitation and health education for improved health hygiene and safe food handling practices by the community.

This may be a challenge but remains the critical factor in reducing he impact of cholera. Other ways of controlling cholera include: Proper and timely case management in cholera treatment centers Improved communication and public information Proper waste management, effective sanitation and improved access to clean water Specific training for proper case management Sufficient pre-positioned medical supplies for case management (e. G. Diarrhea disease kits) TIMELINE: (reference 9 & 10 & 11) 1816-1826: The first cholera pandemic began in Bengal and then spread across to India by 1820.

Many Indians and British troops died during this pandemic. The outbreak extended as far as China, Indonesia and the Caspian Sea in Europe 1829-1851: Second cholera pandemic reaches Russia, Hungary, Germany (1831), Egypt (1831), United Kingdom (1832 with more than 55,000 deaths and known as “King Cholera”), Paris (20,000 out of a population of 650,000 died). Also reached Mecca (1846 with 15,000 deaths) During this pandemic, the scientific community varied in its beliefs about the causes of cholera. In France doctors believed cholera was associated with the poverty of certain communities or poor environment.

Russians believed the disease was contagious, but didn’t understand how t spread. The US believed that cholera was brought by recent immigrants, specifically the Irish, and epidemiologists understand they were carrying disease from British ports Early offs: John Snow an epidemiologist begins studying cholera by working with patients who are infected with the disease 1849: Snow develops a theory that cholera is a water borne disease 1852-1860: The third cholera pandemic mainly affected Russia (over 1 million deaths). It spreads east to Indonesia (1852), China and Japan (1854), Philippines (1858), Korea (1859).

During 1854 the physician John Snow presented his research to the coal authorities (which had a map of the area affected by cholera and found out that most of the deaths were clustered within a few hundred yards of the water pump). He asked them to remove the pump’s handle to prevent more people from drinking the water. The next day, the pump was taken away and thousands of lives were saved. 1863-1875: The fourth cholera pandemic spread mostly in Europe and Africa. It spread through countries and yet again took the lives of many people. 1881-1896: The fifth cholera pandemic, according to Dry. A. J.

Wall, part of the epidemic cost 250,000 lives in Europe and at least 50,000 in Egypt (more than 58,000 lives). This was the last serious European cholera outbreak, as cities improved their sanitation and water system. 1883: (reference 10) Robert Koch determines exactly what bacteria causes cholera and found that the cholera organism can be carried in water or food. 1899-1923: The sixth cholera pandemic had little effect in Western Europe because of their improved sanitation, but major Russian cities and the Ottoman Empire were hardly hit by cholera deaths. More than 500,000 people died in the Russian Empire because of cholera.

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