It is recommended that the two lab stations in the front be designated for the Benedicts test which requires a hot water bath. Procedure 4. Have students read the background information and complete the Pre-Lab questions for Part 1 as the journal activity for the day. 5. Demonstrate to students what equipment and basic procedures they will be applying during this exercise. 6. Have students get into groups of 2-3 and rotate through all 4 stations and record their results. 7. Have students return to their desks but stay with their groups to complete the Analysis Questions in their journals.
Alternate indicators: Iodine for lipids/oil (turns pink but transformation is temporary so watch carefully) Beirut Solution is easy to make. Start with 40% Noah and then sprinkle in copper sulfate until you get a nice blue color. Nitric acid for proteins (turns yellow in the presence Of proteins, Stays clear if none are present). Students need to take the proper cautions when working with nitric acid to prevent contact with skin or clothing. It becomes really easy to see ho did not take proper precautions because they can be caught yellow- handed.
Water solubility test for fats (the presence of fats makes an insoluble layer on top of the water). This test can be difficult at times to detect based on the type of substance and amount of fat in it. ELABORATE Part II: A Lesson in Urinalysis Teacher Prep: following synthetic urine solutions and place them in the front of the room for easy access for students: Synthetic Urine Recipes Each student group needs about 10 ml of a sample for testing. These recipes make about 60 ml of each sample. Stock Urine: mall water
Yellow food coloring g Niacin Urine Sample from Patient #H 987 (High glucose) ml apple juice ml stock urine Urine Sample from Patient #L 623 (High protein) ml stock urine ml egg albumin Urine Sample from Patient #P 552 (High glucose & protein) Urine Sample from Patient #M 340 (High protein & High starch – contaminated sample! ) ml stock urine ml starch 2. Set up 3 lab stations (2-3 times around the room) for students to rotate. Each station should have the materials needed to conduct one of the following tests: a. Iodine Test: starch + iodine (yellowish orange) CLC blue-black Ex.
Potato solution c. Beirut’s Test: protein solution + Beirut’s solution (light blue) C pinkish 3. At each station, provide the Macromolecule Lab: Urinalysis experimental procedure and all lab supplies required to conduct the test. It is recommended that the 1-2 lab stations in the front be designated for the Benedicts test which requires a hot water bath. 4. As the journal questions for the day have students complete the Pre-Lab questions for Part 1. 5. Demonstrate to students what equipment and basic procedures they will be applying during this exercise. 6.
Have students get into groups of 2-3 and Tate through all 4 stations and record their results. 7. Have students return to their desks but stay with their groups to complete the Analysis Questions in their journals. Macromolecule Lab: using Indicators purpose The purpose of this exercise is to determine how to use chemical indicators to verify the presence of carbohydrates (incarcerations and polysaccharides), proteins, and lipids in several known substances. Background Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are nutrients that are essential to all living things. Most foods contain mixtures of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids.
These food molecules taken into cells react to provide the chemical building blocks needed to synthesize other molecules used for processes that the body carries out, like growth and reproduction. The atoms that make up the macromolecules (carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen in particular) occur in different ratios and structures that account for different properties. Indicators are chemical substances that can be used to classify the types of macromolecule present in substances. The indicators will turn color due to the structural differences among the macromolecules.
The individual classes of macromolecules can be described as follows. A carbohydrate is an organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the ratio of about two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom. A protein is organic molecule that is formed from amino acids. An amino acid consists of a central carbon atom to which four functional groups are attached. Most lipids contain fatty acids and glycerol. Nucleic acids are organic molecules that store genetic information in the cell. SAFETY: Pre-Lab – Answer the following pre-lab questions using complete sentences in your lab journals. What are the four main bimolecular found in living things? 2. What is an indicator? How will they be used in this lab? 3. Based on the safety symbols below, what precautions will you expect to take in order to perform this investigation? In the first part of this lab, you will need to determine how to use chemical indicators to verify the presence of incarcerations and polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids in several known substances. Your results in this section will allow you to carry out tests on a “patient’s” urine samples to determine the presence Of any Of the above known substances.
Procedure 1. Draw or paste the following data TABLE in your journal. Chemical Indicator Macromolecule Initial Observation Observations for a Positive Test Berries Solution Benedicts solution Gogol’s Iodine Paper Bag 2. Visit each of the stations set up in the classroom. Follow all instructions carefully and make detailed observations in the data chart to assist you in Part II. 3. When your group has completed all the tests at each station, return to your desks and discuss what you have discovered during this investigation. 4. Be ready to participate in a class discussion and complete an exit ticket.
Analysis Questions (Answer in complete sentences in your journal): 1 . Which substances contain incarcerations? A. Which substances contain starch? B. Which substances contain protein? C. Which substances contain lipids? 2. Which substances did not test positive for any of the organic compounds? 3. What is the purpose of using distilled water as one of your test substances? 4. What do all of the indicators you have used have in common? 5. What conclusions could you make if a positive test for any of the organic compounds occurred in the test tube containing distilled water? 6.
How does n indicator detect the presence of only one type of macromolecule? 7. Is there a macromolecule that the tests in this lab did not test for? If so, list the kinds of macromolecules not tested, and give one reason why they were not tested. 8. Which compound is most common in foods that come from plants? 9. If you wanted to reduce the amount of fat in your diet, what foods would you avoid? 10. Which foods tested would your body use for a quick burst of energy? A. For energy when no carbohydrates are availTABLE? B. For building body parts? Part I Protein Test Station Card – Beirut Solution Materials
Substance tested – Protein solution Indicator – Beirut solution Test tubes Dropper Supplies to clean and dry test tubes 1. This is the station where you will use Beirut’s solution to test for the presence Of proteins. 2. Locate a test tube, the protein solution, and the Beirut solution. 3. Shake the protein solution. Then add 1-2 drops into the test tube. 4. Now, add 2-3 drops of Beirut solution. Swirl the solutions together. 5. Record any observTABLE change in color. 6. Replace all materials. Clean out your test tube using soap, water, and a test tube brush. Place your test tube into the rack to dry.
Lipid Test Station Card – Paper Bag Substance tested – Lipid (vegeTABLE oil ) solution Indicator – Paper bag 1. This is the station where you will use the paper bag test to check for the presence of lipids (fats). 2. Obtain a test tube, the vegeTABLE oil, and a piece of brown paper bag. 3. Add 1-2 drops of vegeTABLE oil to the brown paper. Record what you see. Describe how the paper looks. 4. Repeat step 3 using water on a different piece of brown paper. Record what you see. 5. Compare your two results and come up with a good description of how the paper test can be used to test the presence of lipids. . Replace all materials.
Clean out your work area. Macroeconomics Test Station Card – Benedicts solution Us absence tested – Macroeconomics solution Indicator – Benedicts solution Hot water bath Test tube holder 1 . This is the station where you will use Benedicts solution to test for the presence of incarcerations (simple sugars). 2. Locate a test tube, a test tube holder, the macroeconomics solution, and the Benedicts solution. 3. Add 4-5 drops of the macroeconomics solution to the test tube. 4. Now, add 4-5 drops of the Benedicts solution. Swirl the solutions together. 5. Carefully lace your test tube into the hot water bath using the test tube holder. Caution: Water is HOT! ) 6. Record the change in color that is seen (green indicates a low concentration of incarcerations – brick red indicates a high concentration). Also, note how long it took for the color to change. 7. Replace all materials. Clean out your test tube using soap, water, and a test tube brush. Place your test tube into the rack to dry. Polysaccharide Test Station Card – Logo’s Iodine Us absence tested – Polysaccharide (Starch) solution Indicator – Iodine solution test tube Supplies to clean and dry 1 . This is the station where you will test for the presence of polysaccharides (starch). . Shake the polysaccharide (starch) solution. Then add 1-2 drops into the test tube. 3. Note the color of the iodine solution. Now, add 1-2 drops of the Iodine solution. 4. Record the change in color tattoo observe. 5. Replace all materials. Clean out your well plate using soap and water. Place your well plate on the paper towel to dry. Cut and paste into lab notebook. Beirut’s Solution Berries Solution Lab: Macromolecule – A Lesson in Urinalysis A healthy diet abundant with foods that contain each of the macromolecules ensures proper function of all the body’s cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.
If one or more are lacking, the body cannot function to provide us with all of our necessary needs. Your kidneys filter waste products from your blood while retaining components your body needs ? including proteins and sugars. The kidneys take out waste material, minerals, fluids, and other substances from the blood to be passed in the urine. Serine has hundreds of different body wastes. What you eat, drink, how much you exercise, and how well your kidneys work can affect what is in your urine. Urine can contain important information about a patient’s (human or animal) health status.
A test called a urinalysis, or “CIA”, is done to check for infections of the urinary tract or for the presence of blood, glucose, or protein in the urine. The composition of urine varies depending on diet and activity. Urine is about 95% water, but it also contains urea and uric acid. Sometimes traces of amino acids can be found in urine, as well as a variety of electrolytes. In this activity, you will be analyzing a “patient’s” urine for the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, or lipids. Glucose is the type of sugar found in blood. Normally there is very little or no glucose in urine.
When the blood sugar level is very high, as in uncontrolled diabetes, the sugar spills over into the urine. Glucose can also be found in urine when the kidneys are damaged or diseased. Some diseases and conditions can allow proteins to pass through the filters of your kidneys, causing protein in urine. Protein is normally not found in the urine. Owe levels of protein in urine are normal. Temporarily high levels of protein in urine aren’t unusual either, particularly in pregnant individuals, younger people after hard exercise, or during an illness.