[Solved] the gender contribution model and eating disorders

The Gender Contribution Model recommended by Stice and Bearman shows that adolescent boys and girls share certain risk factors for depression (eg low self-esteem, development of puberty).

This model claimed that some risk factors, especially EWRDs, are distinct to girls (for example, pressure to be thin, thin-ideal internalization) and put girls at greater risk for developing depression (Rawana & Morgan 2015 cited in Bearman & Stice, 2008). An example of how gender difference has an impact on body dissatisfaction are girls struggling to lose weight and slim, while boys strive to gain weight and gain a muscular body. According to Rawana and Morgan as cited in Bearman and Stice (2008) bulimic symptoms were associated with depression in adolescent boys and girls, but dietary restriction and body dissatisfaction were particularly associated with depression in adolescent girls than adolescent boys. Self-esteem and body image were automatically correlated with depression and arbitrate the relationship between gender and depression in adolescence (Rawana & Morgan as cited Marcotte et al., 2002).

If we talk about the tests and questions used in this research. The measure of self-esteem was created based on the sum of four items (e.g., “In general, I like the way I am.”) that were part of the Self-Description Questionnaire. Self-reported depressive symptoms were measured using an abbreviated 12-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Shortened version of the Physical Appearance scale from that measures youths’ body satisfaction including the self-perception of their physical appeal, the way others perceive their physical appearance, and how their physical appearance compares with that of their peers. Questionnaires about weight dissatisfaction: “Would you say you are (a) trying to lose weight, (b) trying to gain weight, (c) trying to stay the same weight, or (d) not trying to do anything about your weight?” . Weight loss behaviors: “During the past 7 days, which one of the following did you do to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight?” A single purging item was “If you have ever eaten so much food in a short period of time that you felt out of control and would have been embarrassed if others saw you, did you ever try to make yourself vomit or throw up?”

If we take a look at the results of this detailed research, the data obtained are as follows. Among early adolescent boys, BMI (p < .01), self-esteem (p < .001), and binge eating behaviors (p < .001) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Among early adolescent girls, self-esteem (p < .001), binge eating (p < .01), and purging (p < .001) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms.

Among late adolescent boys, only pubertal status and self-esteem were significantly associated with depressive symptoms (p’s < .001). Among late adolescent girls, self-esteem and the weight control composite were significantly associated with depressive symptoms (p’s < .001). Maladaptive body weight regulation strategies were significantly associated with depressive symptoms among all adolescent participants after accounting for pubertal status, BMI, and self-esteem. Among late adolescent girls, engaging in a greater number of weight control behaviors was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. BMI was significantly associated with depressive symptoms among early adolescent males only, while pubertal status was significantly associated with depressive symptoms only among the late adolescent males. Self-esteem was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in each group of adolescents.

When we look at these results, one of the first noticeable data was that binge eating was significantly related to depressive symptoms in only both early adolescent girls and boys. But purging was also significantly related to depressive symptoms among early adolescent girls. Among late adolescent girls, engaging in a greater number of weight control behaviors was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. BMI was significantly associated with depressive symptoms among early adolescent males only, while pubertal status was significantly associated with depressive symptoms only among the late adolescent males. Self-esteem was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in each group of adolescents.

If I interpret this article, I can say that their research is very detailed and informative. It was very useful for me to examine the question scales used in this study. I realized that adolescent boys and girls had very different priorities regarding body perceptions and accordingly they could develop different weight control behaviors. What I find missing is that adolescents are not asked questions about their families’ parenting styles. In the psychopathology course, we learned that the effect of families is very important occur with eating disorders. If the an adolescent grows in over-controlling families and the negative emotion expression is not encouraged, she/he will probably struggle with symptoms of eating disorder or depression. Because they believed that they must be perfect to satisfy their parents and others.

Another article I chose is about developing parameters that can be applied for assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with eating disorders. Experimental support was limited, the researchers used a clinical consensus view to support systematic data review. This article includes the history, etiology, risk factors, differential diagnosis and comorbidity methods and treatment recommendations of the eating disorder. The recommendations in this Practice Parameter were developed after searching literature including PubMed/ Medline and using the relevant medical subject headings “eating disorders,” adding limits “child: 6-12 years“ and “adolescent: 13-18 years,” “clinical trial,” and a time period from 1985 to 2011 (Lock & La Via, 2015). Researchers have discussed 91 publications for this Practice Parameter, based on their relationship with clinical practice. In addition, 19 new references were identified for 2012 – 2013 with expert and member reviews. Lock and La Via ( 2015) said that diagnosis of AN disorder usually occurs when the unexpected and sudden weight loss of the individual is noticed by the family or relatives and is referred to a medical professional. Also behavior changes for both weight loss and weight loss begin 6 to 12 months before clinical diagnosis in people with eating disorders. Patients can often reject body image and weight concerns, claiming that they are not just hungry or have stomach problems.

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