[Solved] zinn chapter 8 summary

In this chapter it tells a story about slavery before and after the Civil War. It explains the United States provision of slavery and how some people were misled on who ended slavery, how it was Abraham Lincoln and not John brown who was hung later in 1859 for his crimes. It later goes into graphic detail of how slaves were kept into slavery by whipping and separating families. It sort of reminds of the movie 12 years a slave I would recommend it. It’s sad but true story of how black people were treated back then.

John Brown was hung by the state of Virginia with the approval of the national government for his failed plan to take hold of the federal arsenal. The US Government would not accept an end to slavery by mutiny, but only under circumstances controlled by whites, and only when essential by radical and profitable needs of the North. It was Abraham Lincoln who was able to do just that by putting together the interests of the wealthy and interests of the blacks.

What came next was that Lincoln was elected there was an extensive series of procedure clashes between the South and North. The rattle was not over the issue of slavery, but that the South saw Lincoln and the Republicans as a risk to their pleasant way of life. So when Lincoln was elected ultimately 11 states split from the Union. The Association was formed thus beginning the Civil War. In an effort to end the war, in September 1862, Lincoln announced his primary Emancipation Proclamation.

This was a military move, giving the South 4 months to stop protesting or else their slaves would be freed, if they complied slavery would be unharmed in the states that came over to the North. The Proclamation also opened up the Union army to the blacks. On January 1, 1863, urging antislavery forces. Later in April 1864 Senate had approved the Thirteenth Amendment, declaring an end to slavery, and in January 1865, the House of Congresses followed. The Fourteenth Amendment declared that “all persons born or naturalize in the United States” were citizens.

This restricted states’ rights regarding racial equality. The Fifteenth Amendment said: “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. ” This opened the door for senate to pass laws making it a crime to deprive African Americans of their rights, like allowing blacks to enter into contracts and buy homes and what not. With these laws African Americans formed political organizations.

They were nevertheless held back for several years by Andrew Johnson, who became president while serving as Vice President under Lincoln when Lincoln was killed at the end of the war. Johnson banned bills that helped Blacks and allowed states to return the Union without promising equal rights for blacks. Johnsons’ actions did not sit well with Senators and Congressmen. Later in 1868, Congress nearly succeeded in accusing Johnson but was one vote short in the Senate. Later that year, Republican contender Ulysses Grant would win the presidential election by 300,000 votes over Johnson.

This again opened up doors for blacks, were being elected into southern state legislatures and the US Senate & Congress. Black women were also helping to rebuild the postwar south; black children were going to school. Even though it looked like Negroes were on their way to becoming equal there was still a lot of hostility and dependency on whites for work and supplies. The south used economic power to form the Ku Klux Klan (known as KKK) and other extremist groups. It wasn’t long until things were almost back to where it started.

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