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Developmental Folder Name: Farida Bodiat Task 1 1. 1 An explanation of the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth to 19 years. Every child develops at a different rate, but it is important to know the expected pattern of development. Complete the table, showing the stages of development you may observe in the different age ranges. An example has been completed for you. Age| Area of development| What you may observe at each age range| 0–3 years| Physical| Crawling, rolling, shuffling, walking.

Pointing, holding small objects. Climb stairs and furniture. Riding a trike| | Communication| Crying, gurgling, pointing, tantrums, head banging, nodding, baby noises, smiling, frowning, scared, flinching, gradually the baby talk starts to form single words then by the ages of two and three can form some sentences, and show more signs of clearer understanding for example nodding at the right times or crying and throwing tantrums if they don’t get what they want. | Intellectual/Cognitive| Starts to trust parents consistent response to crying, distressed if needs not met, differentiates between people, sounds and objects, watches hands when they come into view, is quietly alert, cause/effect understanding begins, touch dangling toy it moves, long term memory builds as they wait for expected response, differentiates between speech and other sounds. | Social, Emotional, Behavioural & Moral| Smiles in sleep, moulds body against person holding them, distinguishes parents voices, no routine to eating, sleeping and waking, smiles responsively(not wind), reads or response to parents moods, maintains eye contact/loves faces, can track moving object with eyes, likes to be held cries if put down, stays awake longer when interacted with, smiles easily laughter begins, shrieks loudly enjoys hearing own voice, varies cries to communicate needs,| | 3–7 years| Physical| Throw a ball, use a spoon, hold a pencil.

Colour, draw and paint, use blunt scissors, build with blocks, stand on one foot, kip, hop, somersault, try to dress themselves, draw a picture , a face, a person, dress and undress with no help, take care of their bathroom needs,| | Communication| Speech becomes more social, actively learning, asking more questions,Enjoy make believe play, listen to stories and ask questions, questions using what, where and why, use longer sentences and link them together, start to be able to play games with others, use their language skills to help them read and write, understand spoken instructions , understand sequence words such as, now, then, next, use sentences that are well formed, understand feelings and descriptive words, like carefully, slowly, clever, use language in a range of social situations, share and discuss more complex ideas, use language for different purposes such as asking questions or persuading. | Intellectual/Cognitive| Develops an understanding of concepts, shapes, colour, time-through different method, playing, talking, listening to you, asking questions and imitating, learn to use their senses, watching, touching, listening, tasting and smelling. Capable of problem solving, responds to do’s and don’ts, inquisitive, questioning and imaginative, do multiple tasks, can read their own name, count up to twenty, can do easy sums and hold longer conversations. | | Social, Emotional, Behavioural and Moral| Children go through many stages of social and morale development from early childhood to adolescence, and they also face many social and emotional developments, during infancy children develop socially and morally. Babies begin to realise that humans are not inanimate objects. A child begins to realise how to behave in order to accomplish a goal.

They become aware of how their actions influence the people around them, at 18 months children become knowledgeable of what behaviours cause certain emotions from the people around them, and they act accordingly. Infancy is the beginning of childhood, and it is the beginning of emotional, social, behavioural and moral development. As they grow older they learn to make choices, in response to punishment, such as being told no or have a object taken away from them. | | 7–12 years| Physical| Larger appetites, fine motor skills, by the age of 12 most children have grown into their muscles, loose remaining baby teeth, 6 year molars will be fully grown, 12 year molars will begin to break through, more muscular and use both fine and gross motor skills, activity evels increase,| | Communication| Talk and interact in conversation, but their general outlook is still one of self centeredness, speech more social, e mail, text, mobile phones, social networking sites| | Intellectual/Cognitive| Evidence for organized, logical thought. There is the ability to perform multiple classification tasks, order objects in a logical sequence, and comprehend the principle of conservation thinking becomes less transductive and less egocentric. The child is capable of concrete problem-solving. Some reversibility now possible (quantities moved can be restored such as in arithmetic: 3+4 = 7 and 7-4 = 3, etc. )Class logic-finding bases to sort unlike objects into logical groups where previously it was on superficial perceived attribute such as colour.

Categorical labels such as “number” or animal” now| | Social, Emotional, Behavioural and Moral| Children belonging to this age group develop greater self-regulation skills. By this time they are mature enough to understand when they should control their emotions and when they should express it. Various factors influence their expressivity such as social and cultural behavioural patterns. The same factors now determine their decisions and emotions to a certain extent. Children of this age group also have a developed interpersonal skills. Their behaviour pattern changes depending upon the type of relationship they share with the person involved.

Apart from that, the age and the gender of the child also influence their psyche to a certain extent. In the middle childhood years, children tend to share their negative emotions such as anger and sadness more with their friends rather than their parents in order to avoid receiving a negative response such as teasing and belittling. As they grow older, they share their emotions more with their mothers rather than their fathers because of the same reasons. Usually these emotional regulations are adaptive and children learn more from their experiences and surroundings. It helps them in establishing, building and sustaining their various social relationships within and outside their family.

Emotional development in children 7-12 years old shows that they have a developed thought process that determines and teaches these children how to cope up with a certain negative emotional event. While doing so, many a times their emotional experience also gets altered. For example, in a situation where their bicycle gets stolen, they might try to convince themselves that it is not a big deal and this way, their rational thinking overpowers their emotions| | 12–16 years| Physical| Adolescence—the transition period between childhood and adulthood—encompasses ages 12 to 19. It is a time of tremendous change and discovery. During these years, physical, emotional, and intellectual growth occurs at a dizzying speed, challenging the teenager to adjust to a new body, social identity, and expanding world view.

Perhaps no aspect of adolescence is as noticeable as the physical changes that teenagers experience. Within the span of a few years, a dependent child becomes an independent and contributing adult member of society. The start of adolescence also marks the beginning of Freud’s final stage of psychosexual development, the genital stage, which pertains to both adolescence and adulthood. Puberty is the time of rapid physical development, signaling the end of childhood and the beginning of sexual maturity. Although puberty may begin at different times for different people, by its completion girls and boys without any developmental problems will be structurally and hormonally prepared for sexual reproduction.

The speed at which adolescents sexually mature varies; the beginning of puberty in both genders falls within a range of 6 to 7 years. In any grouping of 14? year? olds, for example, one is likely to see teenagers in assorted stages of development—some appearing as older children and others as fully mature adolescents. Eventually, though, everyone catches up. During childhood, males and females produce roughly equal amounts of male (androgen) and female (estrogen) hormones. At the onset of puberty, the pituitary gland stimulates hormonal changes throughout the body, including in the adrenal, endocrine, and sexual glands. The timing of puberty seems to result from a combination of genetic, environmental, and health factors. | | Communication| | | Intellectual/Cognitive| | Social, Emotional, Behavioural and Moral| | | 16–19 years| Physical| | | Communication| | | Intellectual/Cognitive| | | Social, Emotional, Behavioural and Moral| | | 1. 2: An explanation of the difference between: * The sequence of and rate of development * Development is a series of changes or growth that a process undertakes, normally to improve on that process, leading to a matured state. * Sequence is when an event follows one event after another; succession and the events that happens after a previous event has taken place are normally dependent on the previous event * Rate is a quantity of something in comparison with a unit of another thing And why this difference is important * It is important to know the difference between the sequence and the rate of development in order to identify the child’s needs during the stages of their school years. Early intervention prevents difficulties later on in the child’s development process. It is crucial to plan effectively ensuring the child receives the correct support they need in the areas they find most difficult in. * It is important to identify the differences and how each one plays a role in identifying the accomplishments of a child, what milestones have been reached and what haven’t. * Early intervention is prevention.

Task 2 2. 1 & 2. : An explanation of how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of external and personal factors Factor| Personal or external? | How may development be influenced? | Smoke during pregnancy/substance misuse drugs| personal| Premature birth/ low birth weight, undeveloped organs, hearing, sight problems, blood disorder| health| both| Can be genetic or environment contributed, poor damp housing can trigger asthma and other breathing difficulties, health problem children miss more time from school, always pawn to illness, the child is weak,| poverty| personal| Poor diet can effect growth, less stimulation of the brain, ,child becomes withdraw, low self- esteem, effects social development uch as making friends, poor concentration, less energy, always tired, | Physical difficulties| personal| Unable to socialise, work with other children, restricted movements, withdrawn, low self-esteem, lack of confidence, gross motor skills less developed, less active, fine motor skills may be affected| Learning difficulties| personal| Slow development academically, impact on their development of physical skills, social and intellectual skills, difficulty interacting with other children| Looked after/ cared for children| external| Effect education, low self –esteem, no confidence, feel unloved, find it difficult to socialise, always yearn for a sense of belonging, | 2. 3 An explanation of how current practice is influenced by: -theories of development Skinner – Operant Conditioning Skinner believed that the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causes of an action and its consequences. He called this approach operant conditioning. Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning was based on the work of Thorndike (1905). Edward Thorndike studied learning in animals using a puzzle box to propose the theory known as the ‘Law of Effect’. Skinner’s views were slightly less extreme than those of Watson.

Skinner believed that we do have such a thing as a mind, but that it is simply more productive to study observable behavior rather than internal mental events Bandura – Social Learning Theory Bandura created a theory which supposes that children learn from watching others. They do not need to be taught directly, but will and observe and mimic what those around them are doing. This is a natural process and does not require the coercion of an adult. This way of learning is known as observational learning. In our setting we can create an environment where observational learning can take place. Importantly we must behave in a polite and positive manner at all times.

The children will see this and learn that this is the best way to interact socially. Piaget – Cognitive Development Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget investigated how children think. According to Piaget, children’s thought processes change as they mature physically and interact with the world around them. Piaget believed children develop schema, or mental models, to represent the world. As children learn, they expand and modify their schema through the processes of assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation is the broadening of an existing schema to include new information. Accommodation is the modification of a schema as new information is incorporated.

Vygotsky – Social Development Theory Vygotsky is another theorist but of cognitive development. Vygotsky suggested that children were born to be sociable and by being with parents and then with friends they learned and gained understanding from them. He suggested that people in early years setting working with children should extend and challenge their thoughts in order for their potential development to be achieved. As well as the need for adults to work alongside children Vygotsky also felt that children could guide and develop each others potential by encouraging them to do tasks together. Evidence of this can often be found in my setting.

One example would be reading buddies where children in the infants are paired up with a child from the juniors and they read to their buddy for 10 minutes every day. Freud – Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Freud was an early writer about child development and went against the thinking of his time, in differentiating between the way that children and adults think, as many thought that children were empty vessels waiting to be filled up. Freud describes child development as a series of psychosexual stages whereby the pleasure seeking ID becomes focused on certain erogenous zones and this psychosexual energy or libido is the sole force behind human behaviour.

He examines how if at any stage this desire is not satisfied or resolved problems may occur such as an individual who is fixated at the oral stage may be very dependant and clingy to others and may continue to seek oral stimulation through eating, drinking or smoking. Although Freud does not at any time tackle the subject of learning directly his theories had a substantial influence on education at the time placing emphasis on the role of the family and home as part of the way that a child develops. He believes that the child is defined by its relationships even in the womb and contemporaries even went so far as to blame autism on mothers who did not bond with their children. Freud saw a battle going on between the child’s unconscious desires and the need to fit into and succeed in society.

He proposes that everything we do is to either help us survive or to prevent our own destruction. Maslow – Hierarchy of Needs Maslow believed that everyone has fundamental needs that must be met in order for each person to reach their full potential. These needs include warmth, food and shelter as well as demonstrations of love and having their confidence and self-esteem boosted. In a Play School setting we can achieve these needs by caring for the children in a certain way. We can ensure that the setting is kept at a comfortable temperature, we provide a healthy and nutritious snack for them and we make the hall as welcoming and clean as possible.

To help the children on a psychological level, we must ensure they are all given plenty of attention, and that we allot time to each individual child to work with them on a one-to-one level. To help us do this efficiently a key worker is assigned to each child, and this person is responsible for ensuring that each child meets the requirements laid down in EYFS. We strive to form strong relationships with each child, so that a bond of trust is built. We can then ensure that we help every child to reach their full potential. Bowlby – attachment theory – frameworks to support development TASK 3 3. 1 An explanation of how to monitor children and young people’s development using different methods. You may find it useful to use work products to illustrate your answer, e. g. child observations, assessment rameworks There are many different ways of monitoring children and young people’s development, each of which has advantages and disadvantages. Fill out the table to show the positive and negative aspects of each method. Method| Description| Positive| Negative| Observation| | | | Assessment framework/s| | | | Standard measurement| | | | Information from colleagues and carers| | | | 3. 2 An explanation of the reasons why children and young people’s development may not follow the expected pattern There are many reasons why children and young people’s development may not follow the expected pattern. (Some of this was looked at in 2. 1 and 2. 2). Consider the case study below and then answer the questions that follow. Case Study

Johanna is working in a mainstream school and has been asked to observe Mushtaq who is in Year 3. Mushtaq has just moved to the school and his social and emotional development is not following the expected pattern. 1What could be the possible reasons for this? 2How would you support Mushtaq to overcome this? Explain other reasons why development may not follow the expected pattern. 3. 3 An explanation of how disability may affect development Disabilities can sometimes have an effect on the different areas of development. Complete the table below to show how different disabilities may have an effect on the different areas of development. An example has been completed for you.

Disability| Effect on areas of development| Hearing impairment| Speech has been delayedStruggles to communicate with peersMay be shy and withdrawn| | | | | | | | | | | 3. 4 An explanation of how different types of interventions can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern. TASK 4 4. 1: An analysis that shows the importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition The paragraph below discusses the importance of the early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders.

Fill in the gaps with the word choices given in the box beneath. It is important to act if babies and children are showing any signs of delayed communication, because early intervention will make a significant difference to children’s development. It will allow outside agencies to work with the affected child and encourage the skills they are lacking in, and thus increase their communication skills. A child can quickly fall behind in other areas of development if speech and language learning is delayed. Parents and careers can be given ideas and activities to implement at home, or if a hearing impairment is identified then children can be taught ign language to enable them to communicate. Early identification also helps children’s self- esteem and confidence. actagenciesidentificationactivitiesconfidence interventiondevelopmentencouragedevelopmenthearingsign language It is essential that speech, language and communication delays and disorders are noticed early so the relevant interventions can be used to support the child or young person. 1How can observation help identify speech, language and communication delays? 2What should you do if you have concerns about a child’s development of speech, language and communication skills?

3. What would be the risks if these delays were not identified? 4. : An explanation of how multi-agency teams work together to support speech, language and communication 4. 3: An explanation of how play and activities are used to support the development of speech, language and communication TASK 5 5. 1 An explanation of how different types of transitions can affect children and young people’s development Children and young people face many transitions within their life, such as moving house, changing class or moving schools. Fill in the table below to show the transitions which may take place and the effect these can have on children and young people’s development. Think about emotional, physical, physiological and intellectual transitions: Transition| Possible effect on development| | | | | | | | | | 5. 2 An evaluation of the effect on children and young people of having positive relationships during periods of transition. You may find it helpful to use work products to support your evidence ————————————————- In the age group you are working with, describe how you would support a child or young person through a transition and the effect a positive relationship will have on this. ————————————————- This could include how you would help children and young people to feel secure and welcome in the new setting, organising visits and supporting the child through discussions.

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