travel and tourism 2

      I.            Introduction

Environment becomes more and more important all over the world these few years. People try to save environment from many ways. It is because people can see or feel the impact of the environmental changes. For example, global warming, climate changes, ice melting in North and South Pole that causes sea level increasing. People starts afraid about the impacts that are hard to imagine and will affect their life.

As tourism industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. We may take a look of the changes and trends that bring by the going green in this industry. Tourism industry need changes as it will save cost in long term, customers prefer travel in a way that is more “green”. In this report, we are going to talk about the impact to the environment by tourism industry, some examples of trends and managerial implications in environmental concerns. Especially what hotel, cruise ship, airline and government do to protect the environment.

   II.            Impact to the environment by tourism industry

We are going to focus on 3 types of industries and government’s policies in tourism industry that cause most of the pollutions. Firstly, in hotel industry they may waste a lot of light energy, the establishment would keep the light 24 hours on to keep the property look nice, guests would switch on the television when they are sleeping. Electricity are wasting all the times. And also, solid waste and water waste are the problems as well.

Secondly, in cruise ship industry, they create a lot of pollution including air, solid and water. As they are sailing in the sea, the sewage maybe a huge problem, as some of them are toxic and affect the life of sea animals.

Thirdly, in airline industry, they are one of the least-pollution forms of travel in the world. But the rapid growth of air travel increase the tourist travel by air, so it becomes more and more important to reduce the pollution level of flight. The main pollution they create is the greenhouse gases. The airline industry is responsible for about 11% of greenhouse gases emitted by the U.S. transportation sector.

More detailed explanations and relative examples regarding the trends and managerial implications would be discussed below.

III.            Examples and explains of trends and managerial implications

a.     Cruise ship

In cruise ship industry, the 3 main pollutions are air, solid and water. Air pollution is generated by diesel engines that burn high sulfur content fuel, producing sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and particulate. And also burn large volumes of garbage, plastics and other waste that producing a lot of ash that pollute the air as well. The air pollution created by cruise ship in port for one day equal to 12,300 cars operating for same period.

Solid waste generated on a ship includes glass, paper, cardboard, aluminum and steel cans and plastics. A one-week cruise may generate about 8 tons of solid wastes. It has been estimated that 24% of the solid waste generated worldwide comes from cruise ships.

Water pollutions are very serious also; the cruise line industry dumps 255,000 gallons of gray water and 20,000 gallons of black water into the sea every day. Black water is sewage, waste water from toilets and medical facilities which can contain harmful bacteria. Gray water is waste water from the sinks, showers, galleys, laundry and cleaning activities aboard a ship.

Nowadays, one of the major trends in cruise line industry is going green. As they know, they need to save the environment, and attract more customers in new generation, who are more educated, they know that save the environment are necessary and will chose cruise line that are more “green” than the other, or even join some green tour. Other than that, they can also save cost in long term. If they change some new ship that may save energy and using fuel that are environmental-friendly, and the government may impose heavy taxes in the future for pollution.

There are nine major cruise lines that sail to Alaska that meet and follow the regulations from 2006. They had start the onboard recycling programs and wastewater management programs that are higher than required standards and also using low-sulfur fuel in order to reduce emissions. Following are some initiatives by different big company:

Holland America Line and Princess Cruises have equipped their ships with very large extension cords. So that they can turn off generators and use shore power while in port. It can save lots of energy while in port and reduce emissions that create air pollutions.

Carnival Cruises using new technology for all ships that process used cooking oils and burn them as alternative fuel in order to save more energy. It is kind of recycling that using used good for fuel.

Celebrity Cruises equips new ships with LED lighting and solar panels that cut the amount of power they generate with diesel fuel by up to 25%. Although LED lighting and solar panels are expensive, but it is really a good example to the other cruise lines as it can save cost in long term by cut down the amount that generate with diesel fuel. They also paint their ship hulls with silicone paint which is more environmental-friendly.

Holland America has also started using organic ingredients for dry cleaning and printing. They use digital imaging rather than X-rays in its infirmaries. And each ship has a dedicated environmental officer.

As I notice in the Cruise Line International Association’s (CLIA) website “As new ships are introduced, the CLIA members take advantage of the latest technology and produce more environmental-friendly vessels. They utilized on advanced waste water purification, air emission reductions, LED lighting, solar power, high efficiency appliances, energy efficient windows, products made from recycled materials, “Eco-speed” and other environmentally- friendly hull coatings, low sulfur fuels, solid and liquid waste procession, water pollution education programs, fuel conservation, food byproduct management.”

b.    Airline

The main pollution created by airline industry is greenhouse gases. The aircraft contribute a lot to climate change and global warming. As the rapid increase in total number of people travel by aircraft, the greenhouse gas emissions from airline industry increased by 87% between 1990 and 2006. Here are some solutions to reduce the impact to environment by different airlines.

Some airlines try to find more efficient and greener engines because of the increasing cost of fuel and for environment. Not only engines are the problem, the airlines are changing the general design of the aircrafts in order to increase efficiency

And also, expertise found that the higher the altitude, the better the fuel is expelled into the engine so that we could have more power with less fuel. Most airplanes will fly at 35,000 feet above sea level, but some of the airplanes could fly over 40,000 feet above sea level and use the fuel more efficient.

The Southwest Airlines invested on the new environmentally friendly Boeing 737-700, which aim to reduce weight savings by almost five pound per seat so to save fuel and reducing emissions. They also testing new aircraft’s seats that could double the durability and reducing every traveler by almost two pounds.

As fuels are scarce resources, we may use all of them in the future; so that the fuel cost is keep increasing. It is one of the largest costs in airline industry. For one of the Germany airline, the fuel cost is more than one fifth of its revenue. As a result, many airlines are trying some new type of fuel, for example the bio-fuel, using different natural resources for fuels.

Virgin Atlantic Airways has offered a 25 million dollar prize for a greenhouse gas removal solution, and has committed all profits from the transportation industry over the next 10 years to help discover or design a renewable energy source.

Southwest Airlines was the first airline use electronic ticketing through internet. It could reduce a lot of waste paper.

c.      Hotel

The Energy consumption of hotel industry is very large. Statistics have shown that one average hotel (150 guestrooms) uses as many resources in one week as 100 families do in one year. Therefore, the hotel industries are producing relatively more pollution than the household families. One of the reasons why there is still an increasing of pollution produced by the hotel industries is because the cost in setting up a wastage reducing system is very high, especially for those small scale hotels, they cannot afford to invest a huge amount of money in the project only for ‘environmental purpose’.

With the negative effect that brings by the global warming in recent years, people are more concern about the environment, they notice that energy-saving and reducing pollution is a very important issue to help safeguards the environment.

Nowadays, as tourism and the natural environment are interlinked with each other, tourists do care with the environment quality of the hotel they stayed as well as the holiday destination that they visited. Therefore, the hospitality industry is more aware of this issue and they try to do something on it to safeguard the environment and to maintain the planet. “Going green” is believed to be the best way in solving those pollution problems, it becomes a trend now in the Hospitality Industry. The aim of carrying out a “Going green” program is can help to increase the hospitality industry’s awareness of using the Earth’s resources more efficiently, concerning the benefits that brings to the hotel, it can increase the company’s competitiveness in the industry, and to earn recognition in the public society, most importantly, the practices of “Going Green” result in using fewer materials and generating less waste, therefore it is said that costs are minimized and offset.

Most of the “Going Green” programs are start by applying the rule of the four R’s: Recycling, Reducing, Reusing and Replacing. Besides, get the staffs and the guests involved in the program is also a very important step to success.

There are some successful examples in eco hotel. All of these hotels are 4- 5 green stars hotel. (This rating is giving by the website

The rating is measured by:

Ø   Dependence on the natural environment

Ø   Ecological sustainability

Ø   Proven contribution to conservation

Ø   Provision of environmental training programs

Ø   Incorporation of cultural considerations

Ø   Provision of an economic return to the local community

The Westport woods hotel and spa. (Ireland)

They continuously developed the energy management. The hotel also invite guest to segregate waste and avoid unnecessary laundry. All the lighting using in the spa and lobby are 1 watt LED and CFL (Compact fluorescent lamp) bulbs.

They already save more than 15 Million kWh of energy in 5 years (from 2003 to 2007)

Earth Embassy Guest House (Japan)This hotel are using low energy lighting, For the water supply, they collect rain water for the farm and outdoor cleaning projects.

This hotel doesn’t have any shower, all the bathing facilities are at Yurari Onsen Hot Springs.

968 Park Hotel (USA)

The hotel and spa are fully insulated using material made from recycled blue jeans.

There are also some motion sensor lighting in some public areas, and all lighting is provided using low energy bulbs.
Tatler (2008) for Best Eco-Hotel,

This hotel doesn’t have electricity. Lamps and candles are used for lighting. Coal-filled braziers are used for heating.

For the ventilation system, this hotel is located in desert, so the hotel is using natural ventilation for the ventilation system

Amazon Yarapa River Lodge (Peru)

This hotel is using only low energy consumption light fixtures throughout the lodge.

Guests are educated upon arrival to the lodge. Hotel has a solar power station that currently provides 95% of the electrical needs.

All of the drinking water is brought in from a bottling source. The hotel has large drinking water fountains that are refilled on a regular basis. River Water is used for the rest of needs

Balamku Inn on the Beach (Mexico)

Energy is totally supplied by solar and wind generators.

Constructed wetlands for grey water supports local plants, water usage info in all rooms, low flush composting toilets are some of our best practices

Due to the fact that environmental conserving is not only benefit the environment and people’s health, but also help the hotels in minimizing the establishment cost so as to maximizing its profit, it is a win-win situation to both the community and the entrepreneurships, it is highly desirable for the managerial leaders in the hotels to have the responsibility in carrying out a successful plan in environmental concern.

d.    Government

Nowadays, the whole world is concerning about the environmental movement.

Different country has different Environmental movement policy.

For example, In China, Chinese government began to control the pollution and protect the forest, According to the Chinese government website, the Central Government invested more than 300 billion dollars between 1998 and 2001 on protection of vegetation, farm subsidies and conversion of farm to forests. Between 1999 and 2002, China converted 7.7 million hectares of farmland into forest.

Also, from the beginning of 2008, all supermarkets, department stores and shops in China are interdict to give free plastic bags.

In Australia, Government spends $12.9 billion strategy that aims to secure the long term water supply of all Australians.

There is a Regional Forest Agreements that are 20-year plans for the conservation and sustainable management of Australia’s native forests.

For the European Union

The EU is working for a global agreement to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and is leading the way by taking bold action of its own. In a landmark decision in December 2008, EU leaders approved a comprehensive package of emission-cutting measures. The plan aims to reduce greenhouse gases at least 20% by 2020 (compared with 1990 levels), raise renewable energy’s share of the market to 20% and cut overall energy consumption by 20% (compared with projected trends). Within the drive for more renewable energy, it was agreed that 10% of fuel for transport should come from bio fuels, electricity or hydrogen.

Also, the EU moved in 2008 to set binding limits on emissions of fine particles known as PM2.5. Released by cars and trucks, these microscopic particles can cause respiratory diseases. Under the new law, which takes effect in 2011, EU countries will have to reduce exposure to fine particles in urban areas by an average 20% by 2020 (based on 2010 levels).


To be summarized, our group is totally agree with the statement above that the tourism leaders are now having a new responsibility besides earning money for the company but also dealing with the environmental concerns. We found that this new changed have uncountable benefits not only for the environmental and the community, but also for the companies. A successful planning in conserving the environment can help the company to save money, as most of the resources are better utilized and allocated, the company do not have to pay any extra wastage, therefore, it maximize the profits and increases the chance to access to a larger market.

Caring for the environment should not be happened in the hospitality industry only. It should be spread to the every individual. It was because this is also a place where we live and work, this is our community, our environment, our planet. Although what we can do the environment is not that powerful than those large corporations, but it doesn’t matter, even though you just “BYOB”-bring your own bag in order to get the plastic bag when shopping, it can also help the environment. Good environmental behavior can save your money, to protect your community and the most important thing is that it can bring a better quality of life to our children, our next generation. So, PLEASE START TO CONSERVE OUR ENVIRONMENT FROM NOW ON!


















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