university of phoenix material

University of Phoenix Material

1.       Complete the chart by identifying six actions that decrease the risk of infection and strengthen the body’s immune system. In the second column, describe how the action reduces the risk of infection and strengthens the body’s immune system.

How action reduces risk or strengthens immunity
The body develops an immunity to the inactive pathogen as it is introduced and once a real infection occurs, the body already has defenses in reserve to combat them.
Avoid Smoking
Since smoking reduces levels of certain immune cells within the body, the avoidance of this will enable the body to retain optimal levels of immune cells.
Exercise regularly
Regular exercise helps to strengthen the body, making it more resistant to infections. However, exercise should not be done when sick, because this would weaken the body’s defenses.
Eating healthy and balanced foods
The nutrients within certain food aid in the strengthening of the immune system. Therefore, balancing one’s diet ensures the intake of these immune-boosting foods, leading to a stronger immune system.
Get enough sleep
When the body is tired, the immune system is weakened. Getting enough rest ensures that the immune system is at its optimal levels of functioning. This makes it more capable of fighting off infections
When ill, allow oneself time to recover
When the immune system is compromise through illness, it becomes necessary for the individual to remain rested in order that it might regain its full strength. When a person is ill, the likelihood of acquiring other illnesses increase because of the state of the immune system. Therefore getting rest and remaining away from the public will discourage exposure to further pathogens and give the immune system adequate time to recover

2.       What does it mean when a physician is Board Certified?

ABMS Board certification of a physician occurs at the specialty level and grants a Gold Star status demonstrating the excellence of the physician in a specialty area. Once a physician has completed study leading up to the M.D., he or she must then complete a period of residency within an area of specialization. This activity is overseen by an ABMS specialty board and grants him/her permission to operate legally within a given area of specialty.

3.       Explain the difference between a Doctor of Dental Surgery and Doctor of Medical Dentistry.

According to the chapter, the Doctor of Dental Surgery and Doctor of Medical Dentistry are identical degrees awarded to those who specialize in oral and dental care after completing four years of dental studies. The difference lies simply in the organizations awarding the degree

4.       Explain the difference between an allopathic and osteopathic physician.

Osteopathic physicians undergo training that focuses on the musculo-skeletal system and the methods of manipulating these as a means of therapy. Allopathic physicians (MD’s) tend to be more focused on the application of medication in the treatment of patients than are osteopathic physicians. While, both types are fully trained and empowered in the prescription of medication, osteopathic physicians are encouraged to adopt a holistic approach to their methods of therapy.

5.       Complete the chart. For each provider category briefly describe the education and licensing requirements for practice in the state in which you reside. Then, in the scope of care column, describe the type of care the provider can and cannot legally provide in the state in which you reside.

Provider Category
Education required
License Required
Scope of Care
Can the provider write prescriptions?
M.D. plus specialization
American Board of Ophthalmology
All care including surgery
Doctor of Optometry
Use of drugs for diagnosing and minor treatment
Orthopedic Surgeon
M.D. plus specialization
American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery
All care including drugs for diagnostics and treatment, plus surgery.
Doctor of Podiatric Medicine
National Board of Podiatric Medical Examiners
All care including invasive surgery
Doctor of Chiropractic
National Board of Chiropractic Examiners
No invasive surgery or oral drugs. Musculo-skeletal (including spinal) manipulation,
Physical Therapist
Bachelor of Physical Therapy
American Physical Therapy Association
Massage and manipulation of patient body; giving advice on ambulatory procedures; no drug administration; no surgery
Physician’s Assistant
Certificate; 40 weeks of clinical training
National Commission on Certification of Physician’s Assistants
Diagnostic procedures including imaging tests and drug administration.
Nurse Practitioner

American Academy of Nurse Practitioners
Administer (not prescribe) medication.
Joint Commission on National Dental Examinations
Treatment of oral conditions including surgery
Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards
No prescription drugs; no invasive therapy
M.D. plus specialization
American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology
Administration of drugs;
Hypnosis Practitioner
Diploma certification
American Association of Professional Hypnotherapists
No prescription drugs; no invasive therapy
Reiki Therapist
No state info available
No state info available
No state info available
No state info available
M.D. Residency in Radiology
American Board of Radiology
Use of ionizing/nonionizing radiation for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes
National Association of Boards of Pharmacy
Dispensing of drugs; recommendation of medication, dosages and methods of administration; giving information about side-effects.

6.       Explain the decision-making process you use when deciding whether or not to seek medical care for the types of symptoms listed in the chart. Provide an example for each of the five symptom categories; one example of when you would treat the symptom yourself, and one example of when you would seek professional care. Include who you would seek care from in your example.

Symptom Category
Decision-making process
Example for Self-care
Example for professional care
Seek medical assistance
Non-prescription medication; ice pack, massage
Orthopedic manipulation or prescription drugs
See physician
Watchful waiting to see if symptoms are progressive
Blood, stool or urine samples; biopsy; surgery
Wait, and then see physician if symptoms take longer to clear up than usual
Watchful waiting; self-examination
Prescription drugs; diet change
Seek medical attention after first couple of occurrences
Over-the-counter medication; massage therapy for muscle pain/tightness
Prescription medication, injections,
Seek medical attention immediately
Ice-pack, covering wounds with cloth, allergy medicine
Medication, surgery


Ellenbogen, P. H., T. R. Hoffman, B. W. Short & A. Gonzalez. (2007). “The radiologist assistant:           what radiologists need to know.” J. Am Coll Radiol. 4: 461-470.

Insel, P. L. & W. T. Roth. (2008). Core Concepts In Health. McGraw-Hill.

NYSED. (2008). “Office of the Professions.” New York State Education Department. New York: NYSED Retrieved on October 27, 2008 from

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